The Civil War(1861-1865) Created by: Sarah Rice
Section 1: The Two Sides • Main Idea 1: Both the North and the South had strengths and weaknesses that helped determine their military strategies. • Main Idea 2: Soldiers in the Civil War came from every region, and each side expected an early victory.
Section 1 Vocabulary • border states • blockade • offensive • Rebel • Yankee
The Border States • Seven left the Union to join the Confederacy • Four remained: Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri • Each had strategic locations for the North, but were slave states and teetered towards secession • Missouri=controlled parts of Mississippi River • Kentucky=controlled Ohio River • Maryland=Washington D.C., U.S. government at risk, close to Richmond • Delaware=close to Philadelphia
Lincoln is Cautious • If Lincoln aims to end slavery, border states will secede • If he ordered Northern troops into border states, they might secede • Result of caution: • Border states stayed in the Union • Many border states’ population joined armies in the South
Northern Advantages • Larger population • More industry • More abundant resources • More ships and larger railway network • Better banking system • Abraham Lincoln
Northern Disadvantages • Trying to bring Southern states back into the Union (#1 goal) • Have to invade the South(an unknown territory), occupy the territory, and subdue a population of millions to win the war • Not as much people support as the South
Southern Advantages • Fighting in familiar territory • Military leadership superior • Strong support from the people
Southern Disadvantages • Smaller population of free men • Possessed few factories to manufacture weapons + supplies • Produced half as much food as the North • Difficulty in delivering food, weapons, and supplies due to lack of railway
Main Northern Goal • Bring Southern states back into the Union • Later on in the war, ending slavery also becomes a major goal
Main Southern Goal • To win recognition as an independent nation • This would allow them to preserve their traditional way of life (slavery)
Northern Strategy • 1. Blockade Southern ports • to prevent supplies from reaching the South and from the South earning money through exporting cotton • 2. Gain control of the Mississippi River • to cut Southern supply lines and to divide the Confederacy • 3. Take control of Richmond, Virginia • The Confederate capital Mississippi River (Union) Confederacy
Southern Strategy • Offensive strategy: • Moved armies northward to threaten Washington, D.C. • *Main* Defensive strategy: • Hold onto as much territory as possible until the North tired of fighting • Thought Britain and France would help them out since they bought large quantities of cotton
William Tecumseh Sherman and George McClellan • Union generals
Robert E. Lee • Confederate general
Who Were the Soldiers? • Most came from farms • Young • Average age was 25 years old • 40% were 21 years or younger • North later enlists free African Americans • Confederates/South (REBELS) near 112,000 soldiers • Union/North (YANKEES) near 187,000 soldiers
False Hopes • Each side expected an early victory • They were both wrong.
Section 2: Early Years of War • Main Idea 1: The North realized with the first major battle that the war would be a long, difficult struggle. • Main Idea 2: The North set up a blockade along the South’s coastline, which caused serious problems for the South. • Main Idea 3: The action shifted to the West after the first Battle of Bull Run as each side recognized its forces. • Main Idea 4: Battles continued and after several Southern victories, Lincoln removed General McClellan for his failure to act in these battles.
Section 2 Vocabulary • ironclad • casualty • “Stonewall” Jackson • Ulysses S. Grant • George B. McClellan
First Battle of Bull Run • First major battle of the Civil War • Union attacks Confederates • Union pushed back by General Jackson who fought like a stonewall (aka “Stonewall” Jackson • Confederates push forward with a strange scream of power (aka Rebel yell) • Union flees back to Washington D.C.
A Shock for the North • Union was flabbergasted about the retreat • Lincoln recruits volunteers for the army • Hires a new general: George McClellan
War at Sea • Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports • Imports in short supply during the war due to blockade: coffee, shoes, nails, salt, guns, ammunition • Monitor versus Merrimack • Rebels rebuild the abandoned Yankee warship the Merrimack with iron plates, renamed it Virginia • Rebels retaliate by sending their new ironclad Monitor to engage Virginia in battle • Neither ship sank, but Yankee’s Monitor was able to keep the Merrimack/ Virginia in Northern harbor so they could not do any damage to Northern ships
Early Victories for the North • Ulysses S. Grant captures Confederate’s Fort Henry on Tennessee River. • Then, he captures Fort Donelson • Nickname became “Unconditional Surrender” Grant because that is what he told the Confederates the terms were • Union gains access to lower Tennessee River and a path for troops to march through into the South.
Battle of Shiloh • Confederates launch a surprise attack on Union in Mississippi • Battle lasted two days, but some of the bloodiest fighting in all of the war • Day 1: Rebels drive Yankees back to Ten. River • Day 2: Union fight back and push back to Miss. *20,000 casualties on both sides *Union almost have control of Mississippi River
New Orleans Falls • Union captures New Orleans--South’s largest city • Rebels could no longer use the river to carry its goods to sea • Gives Yankees control of almost all the Mississippi River
McClellan Hesitates • Expert in reorganizing and drilling an army • Too cautious and worried that his troops weren’t ready so he hesitated to initiate battle • Lincoln directs McClellan to take Richmond, but McClellan sneaks around enemy sizing up their strength • “You must act,” Lincoln ordered him. He didn’t. • This gave Rebels time to defend Richmond.
Finally, when McClellan does fight, they are outnumbered. • Launch into the Seven Days’ Battles • Confederates circle around Union army and spy to learn about Union positions • Then the Rebels force Yankees back • Yankees fail to capture Richmond • Restores Rebel hope
Gloom in the North • Disheartened by Richmond failure • Confederates win the Second Battle of Bull Run, allowing them to keep Richmond • This Confederate victory brought Rebels closer to Washington, D.C., which posed a huge threat for the Yankees
Lee Enters Maryland • General Robert E. Lee tries to convince Maryland to become part of the Confederacy • Two soldiers find Lee’s copy of attack orders wrapped around three cigars • McClellan learns Lee’s plansand that his army was divided into four parts (Trevor Trivia) • McClellan’s big opportunity to redeem himself has arrived • But he was too cautious again and he waited four days to attack, giving Lee enough time to gather his troops together
Battle of Antietam • September 17th—single most bloodiest day of the entire war • Casualties were heavy on both sides, but neither army was destroyed • Lee withdraws to Virginia and Union takes this as a victory • McClellan ignored Lincoln’s order to pursue the Rebels and destroy them • Lincoln fires McClellan and replaces him with General Ambrose Burnside *Lincoln uses this major victory as a sign to take action against slavery. He begins this new conquest.