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American History Reconstruction to the Present. GHSGT Social Studies Review. Reconstruction 1865-1877. How to rejoin a nation torn apart by the civil war 2 plans Presidential Reconstruction Radical Republican Reconstruction. Presidential reconstruction. 10% plan

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reconstruction 1865 1877
Reconstruction 1865-1877
  • How to rejoin a nation torn apart by the civil war
  • 2 plans
  • Presidential Reconstruction
  • Radical Republican Reconstruction
presidential reconstruction
Presidential reconstruction
  • 10% plan
  • Make the South’s return to the Union as quick and painless as possible
  • After 10% of those on voting lists swore allegiance to the Union, a Confederate state could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress
radical reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction
  • Also called the Wade-Davis Bill
  • Wanted to destroy the political power of former slave owners
  • African Americans should be given full citizenship and the right to vote
  • The majority of voters in southern states would have to swear allegiance before being readmitted to the Union (not 10%)
  • Lincoln pocket vetoed the Bill
helping the former slaves
Helping the former slaves
  • Freedmen’s Bureau
  • Helped former slaves and poor whites
  • Distributed clothing and food
  • Set up hospitals, industrial institutes and teacher training centers
  • Worked with churches to reunite families separated by slavery
  • Schools were set up to teach former slaves how to read and write
helping the former slaves1
Helping the former slaves
  • Some people thought plantation land should be distributed to the newly freed slaves
  • Others argues that the government could not take property away from its owner
  • The government did pass a Homestead Act which set aside 44 million acres, but it didn’t do much good because the land wasn’t suitable for farming
cycle of poverty
Cycle of Poverty
  • Many former slaves did not have money to buy their own land
  • They became tenant farmers or sharecroppers
  • They rented land and equipment and paid for its use with a large part of their harvest
13th 14th and 15th amendments
13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
  • 13th—ended slavery
  • 14th--Made former slaves citizens
  • 15th—gave African American men (former slaves) the right to vote
opposition to african americans exercising their freedoms
Opposition to African Americans exercising their freedoms
  • Black Codes—laws passed by southern states that severely restricted the rights of former slaves (discrimination laws). Congress said these laws were illegal
  • The Ku Klux Klan—goal was to restore white supremacy and prevent African Americans from exercising their new political rights
president johnson
President Johnson
  • Radical Republicans did not like the fact that President Johnson was not enforcing the Reconstruction Act
  • Congress charged Johnson with violating the Tenure of Office Act (impeachment)
  • Congress claimed Johnson had fired a cabinet member without the Senate’s permission
  • Johnson was found not guilty
  • After the civil war, many people began to go west to start over
  • Railroads made westward expansion possible
  • The government gave railroad companies land grants and loans
  • Expansion of railroads led to the development of towns and new markets for eastern goods
railroads expand industry
Railroads expand industry
  • Steel industries supplied railroad companies with supplies
  • This led to Andrew Carnegie gaining a monopoly on the steel industry
  • Carnegie used vertical integration (he controlled all aspects of the steel industry from start to finish)
  • He also bought out his competitors
transcontinental railroad
Transcontinental Railroad
  • 2 railroad companies decide to build a railroad that would go across the nation
  • Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met at Promontory Point Utah in 1869
  • The Central Pacific RR used Chinese immigrants to work for lower wages in dangerous conditions to help build the railroad
monopolies big business
Monopolies & Big Business
  • John D. Rockefeller used trusts to form a monopoly in the Oil Industry
  • Trust—companies turn over their stock to be managed by a group of trustees who run the companies like a large corporation. They then get a share of the profits earned by the trust
robber baron rockefeller
Robber Baron Rockefeller
  • He also sold his oil so cheap, his competitors were forced out of business
  • Once he had control of the market, he would drastically raise the price
  • He treated his employees poorly
  • People criticize his business tactics, calling him a robber baron
immigrants arrive in the usa
Immigrants arrive in the USA
  • Before the civil war, immigrants came from Germany, Ireland, France, Etc (North and West Europe)
  • After the civil war, many of the immigrants coming to the USA were from Southern and Eastern Europe
  • Ellis Island—immigrant processing station in New York City for European immigrants
  • Angel Island--immigrant processing station in San Francisco for Asian immigrants
impact of immigration in cities
Impact of Immigration in cities
  • When they got to America, immigrants usually lived in the cities where they could find jobs
  • The large numbers of immigrants flooding into urban areas (cities) led to several problems:
  • Poor sanitation, not enough housing, disease, over crowding, transportation, water, crime, fire
american federation of labor
American Federation of Labor
  • An organization of skilled workers that join together to collective bargain: Negotiation between workers and management to reach a written agreement
  • The AFL wanted better hours, wages, and working condition
  • The AFL used strikes to achieve their goals

Samuel Gompers was the President of the AFL

indian wars settlement of the west
Indian Wars settlement of the West
  • Native Americans had been forced to live in the western plains
  • As settlers move to the west and as railroads expand, conflict between the groups increase
plains indian wars
Plains Indian Wars
  • Gold, the Bozeman Trail, and buffalo hunting leads to conflict between settlers and Indians
  • Massacre at Sand Creek, Battle of the Little Bighorn River (Custer defeated), Battle of Wounded Knee—native defeat ends Indian wars
  • Indians are forced to live on reservations and to assimilate into “white’ culture
women lead the way
Women lead the way
  • After the civil war, women once again lead the reform movement
  • Suffrage, temperance/prohibition, educating Native Americans, workers’ rights, child labor, hardships of the farmers, living conditions in the cities, education
continued discrimination
Continued discrimination
  • Jim Crow laws—laws passed by states and local governments which segregated the races
  • Plessey v. Ferguson—Supreme court case which made segregation of races legal as long as the facilities were equal
  • Established the idea of “Separate but Equal”
chinese exclusion act of 1882
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  • The American government created this law to stop Chinese immigrants from coming to the USA
  • Asian immigrants were seen as competition for jobs because they would work for less pay
  • This led to strong anti-Asian feelings on the west coast.
progressive reforms
Progressive reforms
  • Initiative– ideas for laws that start with the people not law makers
  • Referendum—people can vote on the initiative laws
  • Recall—people can call for a new election which may remove an elected official before their term in office is over
  • Direct election of senators—the people of each state could vote for their senators (17th amendment)
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • Founded in 1909
  • Led by W.E.B. Dubois
  • Goal—promote full racial equality
  • Muckraker—journalist in the Progressive Era that exposed corruption in government, business, and society
  • Ida Tarbell—muckraker who exposed corruption in The Standard Oil Company
the jungle
The Jungle
  • Muckraker, Upton Sinclair’s book
  • Originally meant to expose the horrible working conditions in the Chicago meat packing houses
  • Instead exposed the horrible processing practices of meat
  • As a result of the book, 2 laws were passed
  • The Pure Food and Drug Act—required the ingredients to be listed
  • The Meat Inspection Act—federal inspectors regulated the sanitation and processing of meat
helping the poor workers of america
Helping the poor workers of America
  • During the Progressive Era, laws were passed to improve working conditions, reduce working hours, reduce the use of child laborers
  • Muckrakers exposed the horrible living conditions of poor workers in the cities
spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • America went to war to free Cuba and the Philippines from Spanish control
  • When the US freed the Philippines, the US made it into an American colony which angered the people who though they should be independent.
  • America also took control of Hawaii and Puerto Rico
  • Some people objected to America forming colonies
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
  • The Monroe Doctrine had stated that European nations should not try to set up colonies in Latin America (keep out or else)
  • After the Spanish-American War, President Theodore Roosevelt added another part to that policy
  • The Roosevelt Corollary stated that the US would use military force to protect its interests in Latin America
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • The US wanted a faster way to get to the Pacific Ocean to protect our new colonies
  • Columbia controlled Panama and would not negotiate
  • The US “helped” the people of Panama start a rebellion so they could become independent
  • The US signed a treaty with Panama to build a canal (completed in 1914)
u s involvement in world war i
U.S. involvement in World War I
  • At first, America was officially neutral in World War I (1914)
  • As Germany practiced unrestricted submarine warfare (sinking the Lusitania and American merchant ships) and tried to start a war between Mexico and the US (Zimmerman Note) America eventually joined the Allied Forces (1917)
impact of the war at home
Impact of the War at Home
  • American factories switched from producing household goods to war time goods
  • African Americans moved from the south to the north to work in the factories—The Great Migration
  • Women also worked in factories which helped gain support for female suffrage
wilson s fourteen points
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
  • During the war, President Wilson came up with a plan for peace –Wilson’s 14 points
  • His most important idea was the formation of a League of Nations which would call for an international organization to try and work out conflicts and avoid another war
  • Congress was afraid that the US would get tangled up in international conflicts so the US NEVER joined the League or signed the Versailles Treaty
1920 s amendments
1920’s amendments
  • Eighteenth Amendment--established Prohibition (production, sale, or consumption of alcohol was illegal) 1920
  • Nineteenth Amendment--established woman suffrage
the us after ww i
The US after WW I
  • After the war, America withdrew itself from international issues (isolationism)
  • Americans also became paranoid that communism and socialism could spread and increase in the USA
  • This led to the Red Scare during which people were investigated if they were thought to be socialist or communist (Palmer Raids)

Congress also passed laws to restrict immigration, especially from nations in southern or eastern Europe

assembly line
Assembly Line
  • Henry Ford used assembly lines to mass produce his cars (Model T)
  • By the 1920’s the automobile had transformed American society
  • Towns develop as people moved further away from the cities
  • Route 66 was built, gas stations, rubber and oil industries expand
  • Women and teenagers gain more independence
radio and movies
Radio and Movies
  • Radio provided a way for Americans to experience a common culture by listening to news, baseball games, soap operas, etc
  • Movies were a cheap form of entertainment during the 1920’s and Depression
  • People could escape the hardships of life, even for just a little while
african american 1920 s culture
African American 1920’s Culture
  • Jazz, with its roots in ragtime and blues, became a popular form of music
  • Louis Armstrong (playing his trumpet) became a famous and influential jazz musician
  • The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic, literary, and cultural African American movement
  • Langston Hughes was a famous African American poet
causes of the great depression
Causes of the Great Depression
  • 1. Overproduction—farmers and factories were producing more crops and goods
  • 2. Under consumption—wages do not keep up with rising prices—people start buying things on credit
  • 3. unequal distribution of wealth
stock market crash of 1929
Stock market crash of 1929
  • People gambled on the stock market
  • Either by buying on the margin( taking out loans to pay for stocks) or
  • Speculation—buying stocks and bonds on the chance for a quick profit
  • Unrestrained buying and selling led to the crash on October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday)
  • The Stock market crash did not cause the depression, but it did signal the start of widespread unemployment and economic collapse from 1929-19940
  • Banks and businesses fail
  • 1 out of every 4 people became unemployed
  • Homeless families who lost everything form makeshift shantytowns called Hoovervilles.
franklin roosevelt s new deal
Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal
  • President Roosevelt started a program called the New Deal to provide relief, recovery, and reform
  • Many government agencies were created to give people jobs building bridges, roads, highways, etc
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) built dams along the Tennessee River and provided inexpensive electricity to the poor areas of the south
the new deal helps the worker
The New Deal helps the worker
  • Wagner Act—helped the workers by allowing workers to join unions and engage in collective bargaining.
  • It also prevented business owners from being able to fire union members, threatening workers, and interfering with union organizing
social security act 1935
Social Security Act 1935
  • Provided old age insurance for people 65 or older and their spouse
  • Provided un employment compensation
  • Provided aid to families with dependent children and the disabled
lend lease
  • America remained officially neutral during the beginnings of WWII
  • 1939—Congress agrees to sell weapons to nations at war under the “cash and carry” system.
  • Late 1940– the US would lend or lease arms to nations whose defense was vital to the US
pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • The USA placed an oil embargo against Japan because Japan invaded French Indochina
  • The Japanese began planning an attack on the US
  • Intelligence had decoded messages, we knew an attack was coming, we didn’t know when or where
pearl harbor1
Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941
  • Japanese attack the US naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  • FDR says it is a “date which will live in infamy”
  • The US declared war on Japan
  • December 10, Italy and Germany declared war on the US
japanese american internment
Japanese-American internment
  • Executive Order 9066 was signed
  • People of Japanese ancestry living in California, Washington state, Oregon and Arizona were forced to move to “relocation centers”
  • Basically they were prison camps, the people were not killed, but they could not leave
  • 110,000 Japanese-Americans affected

Japanese attack on

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

“A date which will

live in infamy”

Japanese-American Internment Camp

america at war
America at War
  • The US government instituted a draft
  • Still had racially segregated military units
  • Factories change to manufacture war related goods and materials
  • The government issued ration books to restrict the amount of goods used by civilians (butter, meat, nylon, etc)
  • Women go to work in the factories while the men go off to fight
the manhattan project
The Manhattan Project
  • American military leaders knew that a land invasion of Japan would kill thousands of American soldiers
  • President Truman decided to use a new weapon that had secretly been developed by American Scientists at the labs in Los Alamos, New Mexico
  • The Manhattan project (code name for the building of the bomb) had been led by J. Robert Oppenheimer
dropping the bomb
Dropping the bomb
  • On August 6, 1945 the first bomb was dropped on the city of Hiroshima
  • On August 9th the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki
  • September 2--formal surrender of Japan
leading to the cold war
Leading to the Cold War
  • Marshall Plan—US provided $13 billion to European nations recovering from the war
  • Truman Doctrine—Us policy to support free people who are resisting being taken over by outside forces
  • Containment policy—Truman’s official foreign policy. The US would prevent any extension of communist rule to other countries
china falls to communism
China falls to Communism
  • The US had sent financial assistance to help the Chinese Nationalists in their civil war, but Mao Zedong won and formed the People’s Republic of China
  • China was now communist and had the support of their northern neighbor, the Soviet Union
  • People criticized Truman for not doing enough, although he knew the US wasn’t prepared to fight a war in Asia
the korean war
The Korean War
  • At the end of WWII, Japan surrendered Korea north of the 38th parallel to the Soviets
  • South of the 38th parallel was surrendered to the Americans
  • June 1950, North Korean forced invaded South Korea
  • UN troops (most of them Americans) help South Korea
the korean war1
The Korean War
  • China comes to the rescue of North Korea by sending 300,000 troops
  • General McArthur wanted to invade China, but Truman knew that would start WWIII
  • Forces in the south tried to invade the north once again
  • July 1953 the Soviet Union and UN leaders agree to a cease fire
  • Korea is still a divided nation
a new red scare
A New Red Scare
  • As the policy of containment was being challenged in China and Korea, Americans started to become suspicious that communists were becoming more numerous
  • The government set up a loyalty review board to investigate suspected people
communists in hollywood
Communists in Hollywood?
  • The house Un-American Activities Committee investigated Hollywood actors/film makers who were making pro-Soviet films
  • Hollywood 10 sent to prison
  • Others were blacklisted (careers ruined because of their supposed Communist connections)
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy took advantage of the growing paranoia and began accusing people in the government of being communists
  • He had no hard evidence to support these claims.
  • Finally in 1954, when McCarthy began to make accusations against the US army, people began to see it as a marketing ploy for him to get re-elected
space race
Space race
  • November 1952 the US announced it had built a hydrogen bomb (more destructive then an atomic bomb)
  • Russia responded by building their own bomb less than a year later
  • Both nations then look to outer space as a new environment for defense
  • Russia launched the 1st satellite into orbit in 1957 (Sputnik I)
space race1
Space race
  • American attempts to build and launch satellites were humiliatingly unsuccessful until 1958
  • Tensions increased when a U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia (Frances Gary Powers, pilot)
  • Eisenhower had to admit the US had been spying, but would not apologize
cold war and cuba
Cold War and Cuba
  • America secretly helped Cuban exiles plan an attack against communist Cuba 1961
  • The Bay of Pigs invasion failed and made the US and Kennedy look incompetent
  • 1962—Russia started setting up missiles in Cuba (within range of the US)
  • For 6 days the world teetered on the brink of war until finally Soviet ships turned around and it was agreed that the missiles would be removed
civil rights movement 1945
Civil Rights Movement, 1945
  • President Truman supported the Civil Rights Movement
  • Congress would not pass laws to allow the military to be integrated
  • President Truman issued executive order 9981, forcing the armed forces to end segregation
  • The order also said that the government could not discriminate when hiring employees
brown v board of education
Brown v. Board of Education
  • Thurgood Marshall and the NAAP took on a case that challenged the constitutionality of Plessey vs., Ferguson
  • An 8 year old black child was denied admission to an all white elementary school 4 blocks away when the closest black elementary school was 21 blocks away
separate is not equal
Separate is not Equal
  • After much debate, the Supreme Court determined that segregated schools were unconstitutional and violated the 14th amendment
  • Resistance to integrated schools escalated into violence
  • The national guard had to be called in to protect the Little Rock 9 students
martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Civil rights leader who drew upon the works of Gandhi to promote civil disobedience (non violent protest)
  • “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”—when King was arrested during a demonstration, he wrote this letter which explained what life was like for African Americans who faced discrimination. It explained why African Americans felt the need to act
i have a dream speech
“I have a dream” speech
  • 250,000 people march on Washington DC to show support for the Civil Rights Bill
  • His moving speech appealed for peace and racial harmony
civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Prohibited discrimination based on race, gender, religion, or national origin
  • Banned discrimination in employment and in public accommodations
  • Enlarged federal power to protect voting rights and speed up school desegregation
  • Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure fair treatment in employment
voting rights act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • March 7, 1965-- 600 protesters in Selma, Alabama set out on a 50 mile march to the state capital in Montgomery—TV captured the brutality of police treatment of the demonstrators
  • March 21—another march was organized, protected by federal troops.
  • The Bill eliminated voter literacy tests
  • Enabled federal examiners to register voters
student non violent coordinating committee sncc
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  • College students who took a more direct approach to bring attention to the Civil Rights Movement
  • SNCC members used sit ins at segregated lunch counters to draw media attention
southern christian leadership conference
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • (SCLC)
  • Led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr
  • Used protests and demonstrations to gain attention
  • Non violent protests
freedom riders
Freedom Riders
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) set out to challenge the law banning segregation on public busses and in bus terminals
  • CORE members encountered violent beatings and firebombs as they traveled across the South
  • President Kennedy provided federal protection and set up the Interstate Commerce Commission
national organization of women now
National Organization of Women (NOW)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1864 prompted women address their grievances
  • Betty Friedan (wrote the Feminine Mystique) and Gloria Steinem led the movement for gender equality
  • Career opportunities for women expanded
modern environmentalist movement 1960 s present
Modern environmentalist movement 1960’s-present
  • Rachel Carson wrote a book called, Silent Spring, which exposed the dangers of using pesticides to kill bugs, rodents, and weeds-eventually no birds/animals would be left
  • Earth Day (April 22, 1970) environmental awareness about pollution and protecting the earth’s resources
environmental protection agency
Environmental Protection Agency
  • Formed in 1970 by President Nixon
  • The federal government could:
  • Set and enforce pollution standards
  • Conduct environmental research
  • Assist state and local governments in pollution control