chapter 7 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 7 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 7

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Chapter 7 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 7 Power and Politics Power and Politics Questions for Consideration Questions for Consideration What is power? How does one get it? What does it mean to empower employees? How can we be effective at office politics? Power and Politics Power

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 7' - benjamin

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 7

Chapter 7

Power and Politics

power and politics
Power and Politics

Questions for Consideration

Questions for Consideration

  • What is power?
  • How does one get it?
  • What does it mean to empower employees?
  • How can we be effective at office politics?
power and politics3
Power and Politics
  • Power
    • A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.
      • Dependency: B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires
  • Politics
    • Behaviour to influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.
leadership and power
Leadership and Power



  • Does not require goal acceptance
  • Focuses on intimidation
  • Maximizes importance of lateral and upward influence
  • Power focuses on tactics for gaining compliance
  • Requires goal agreement
  • Focuses on downward influence
  • Minimizes importance of lateral and upward influence
  • Leadership research focuses on answers
measuring bases of power
Measuring Bases of Power
  • Coercive power
    • The person can make things difficult for people, and you want to avoid getting him or her angry.
      • Power that is based on fear.
  • Reward power
    • The person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people, and you find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her.
  • Legitimate power
    • The person has the right, considering his or her position and your job responsibilities, to expect you to comply with legitimate requests.
measuring bases of power6
Measuring Bases of Power
  • Expert power
    • The person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect, and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters.
  • Referent power
    • You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her.
evaluating the bases of power
Evaluating the Bases of Power
  • Coercive power tends to result in negative performance responses from individuals, decreases satisfaction, increases mistrust, and creates fear.
  • Legitimate power does not have a negative effect, but does not generally stimulate employees to improve their attitudes or performance, and it does not generally result in increased commitment.
  • Reward power may improve performance in a variety of situations if the rewards are consistent with what the individuals want as rewards.
  • Expert power relies on trust that all relevant information is given out honestly and completely.
leaders use of power
Leaders’ Use of Power
  • The least effective power bases are the ones most likely to be used by managers
    • Coercive, legitimate, and reward
    • Easiest to implement
  • Effective leaders use referent and/or expert power
dependency key to power
Dependency: Key to Power
  • Importance
    • The things you control must be important
  • Scarcity
    • A resource must be perceived as scarce
  • Non-substitutability
    • The resource cannot be substituted with something else
increasing dependency
Increasing Dependency
  • To increase the dependency of others on you, you need to
    • Control things viewed as important
    • The resources must be viewed as scarce
    • The resource must have few or no substitutes (nonsubstitutability)
popularity of power tactics from most to least popular
Popularity of Power Tactics: From Most to Least Popular

When Managers



When Managers



Most Popular






Higher authority






Higher authority


Least Popular

*The dimension of sanctions is omitted in the scale

that measures upward influence.

empowerment giving power to employees
Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees
  • The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments
  • Managers disagree over definition of empowerment
    • Empowerment as delegating decision making within a set of clear boundaries


    • Empowerment as “a process of risk taking and personal growth”
conditions for true empowerment
Conditions for True Empowerment
  • Clear definition of the values and mission of the company
  • Company must help employees acquire the relevant skills
  • Employees need to be supported in their decision making, and not criticized when they try to do something extraordinary
  • Employees need to be recognized for their efforts
characteristics of empowered people
Characteristics of Empowered People
  • Sense of self-determination
    • Employees are free to choose how to do their work; They are not micromanaged
  • Sense of meaning
    • Employees feel that their work is important to them; They care about what they are doing
  • Sense of competence
    • Employees are confident about their ability to do their work well; They know they can perform
  • Sense of impact
    • Employees people believe they can have influence on their work unit; Others listen to their ideas
  • Two or more individuals who combine their power to push for or support their demands
  • Predictions about coalition formation
    • Coalitions seek to maximize their size
    • Coalitions more likely to be created when there is greater task and resource dependence
    • Coalitions more likely when tasks are routine
sexual harassment
Sexual Harassment
  • The Supreme Court of Canada defines sexual harassment as
    • Unwelcome behaviour of a sexual nature in the workplace that negatively affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for the employee
examples of sexual harassment
Examples of Sexual Harassment
  • Disagreement as to what specifically constitutes sexual harassment
  • Includes
    • Unwanted physical touching
    • Recurring requests for dates when it is made clear the person isn’t interested
    • Coercive threats that a person will lose her or his job if she or he refuses a sexual proposition
examples of sexual harassment18
Examples of Sexual Harassment
  • More subtle forms (harder to interpret)
    • Unwanted looks or comments
    • Off-colour jokes
    • Sexual artifacts such as nude calendars in the workplace
    • Sexual innuendo
    • Misinterpretations of where the line between “being friendly” ends and “harassment” begins
political behaviour
Political Behaviour
  • Those activities that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.
    • Legitimate: normal everyday behaviour
    • Illegitimate: extreme political behaviours that violate the implied rules of the game
why do we get politics
Why Do We Get Politics?
  • Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values, goals and interests
  • Resources in organizations are limited
  • Performance outcomes are not completely clear and objective
factors influencing political behaviour
Factors Influencing Political Behaviour

Individual factors

High self-monitors

Internal locus of control

High Mach

Organizational investment

Perceived job alternatives

Expectations of success

Favourable outcomes

Political behaviour


Low High

Organizational factors

Averted punishments

Reallocation of resources

Promotion opportunities

Low trust

Role ambiguity

Unclear performance

evaluation system

Zero-sum reward practices

Democratic decision making

High performance pressures

Self-serving senior managers

what individual factors contribute to politics
What Individual Factors Contribute to Politics?
  • High self-monitors
  • Internal locus of control
  • High mach
  • Organizational investment
  • Perceived job alternatives
  • Expectations of success
what organizational factors contribute to politics
What Organizational Factors Contribute to Politics?
  • Reallocation of rewards
  • Promotion opportunities
  • Low trust
  • Role ambiguity
  • Unclear performance evaluation system
  • Zero-sum reward practices
  • Democratic decision-making
  • High performance pressure
  • Self-serving senior managers
types of political activity
Types of Political Activity
  • Attacking or blaming others
  • Controlling information
  • Forming coalitions
  • Networking
  • Creating obligations
  • Managing impressions
impression management
Impression Management
  • The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them
  • More likely used by high self-monitors than low self-monitors
    • High self-monitors try to read the situation
impression management im techniques
Impression Management (IM) Techniques
  • Conformity
    • Agreeing with someone else’s opinion in order to gain his or her approval.
  • Excuses
    • Explanations of a predicament-creating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament.
  • Apologies
    • Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action.
  • Acclamations
    • Explanation of favorable events to maximize the desirable implications for oneself.
  • Flattery
    • Complimenting others about their virtues in an effort to make oneself appear perceptive and likable.
  • Favours
    • Doing something nice for someone to gain that person’s approval.
  • Association
    • Enhancing or protecting one’s image by managing information about people and things with which one is associated.
summary and implications
Summary and Implications
  • Power is a two-way street.
  • Few employees relish being powerless in their jobs and organization.
  • People respond differently to various power bases.
    • Employees working under coercive managers are unlikely to be committed,
    • and more likely to resist the manager.
  • Expert power is the most strongly and consistently related to effective employee performance.
summary and implications28
Summary and Implications
  • The power of the manager may also play a role in determining job satisfaction.
  • The effective manager accepts the political nature of organizations.
  • The more political that employees perceive an organization, the lower their satisfaction.