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Wilsonian Progressivism. Chapter 29. Essential Questions. What actions did President Wilson pursue to expand the p rogressive movement? How did the Wilson administration handle foreign affairs?. 1912 Election. Republicans nominate President Taft

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essential questions
Essential Questions
  • What actions did President Wilson pursue to expand the progressive movement?
  • How did the Wilson administration handle foreign affairs?
1912 election
1912 Election
  • Republicans nominate President Taft
  • T. Roosevelt shunned by Republican Party starts his own party, Bull Moose Party
    • Platform: women’s suffrage, minimum wage laws, social security
  • Democrats nominate Woodrow Wilson
    • Platform: New Freedom (antitrust legislation, bank reform, tariff reduction)
1912 election1
1912 Election
  • Taft and Roosevelt divide Republican voters
    • Wilson = 435 EC votes
    • Roosevelt = 88 EC votes
    • Taft = 8 EC votes
    • Eugene Debs (Socialist party) = 0 EC votes
    • Wilson only won 41% of popular vote
    • Taft will become Chief justice of Supreme Court in 1921
president woodrow wilson timeline
President Woodrow Wilson Timeline
  • 1913
    • Underwood Tariff Act
    • 16th Amendment
    • Federal Reserve Act
    • 17th Amendment
  • 1914
    • Clayton Anti-Trust Act
    • WWI Begins
    • US occupation of Veracruz
  • 1915
    • Sinking of Lusitania
    • US enters Haiti
  • 1916
    • Pancho Villa Raids
    • Wilson Reelected
  • 1917
    • US buys Virgin Islands
    • Zimmerman Note
    • Bolshevik Revolution
    • US enters WWI
  • 1918
    • 14 Points proposed
    • Sedition Act
    • Armistice
  • 1919
    • Treaty of Versailles
    • 18th Amendment
    • Wilson collapse
  • 1920
    • Senate defeats Versailles
    • 19th Amendment
    • Harding elected president
woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson
  • Born in Virginia
  • Inspired by Jefferson
  • College professor
  • Governor of New Jersey
  • Saw the world as right and wrong, no in-between
new freedom
New Freedom
  • Wilson was very progressive.
  • Adopted views previously held by Populist and Bull Moose Parties.
  • Lived up to his promises domestically.
  • Failures
    • Segregation: Wilson did nothing to ease the suffering of African Americans
    • Child Labor: supported law that would have ended child labor, but Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional.
taxs tariffs and trusts oh my
Taxs, Tariffs, and Trusts, Oh MY!
  • Congress passes Underwood Tariff Bill (lowers tariff)
  • 16th Amendment: taxed the income of people earning most in US
  • Federal Trade Commission: Created to sniff out trusts and unfair business
  • Clayton Antitrust Act: much more powerful than Sherman.
    • easier to enforce
    • Exempted labor unions
    • Exempted agricultural organizations
    • Outlawed interlocking directorates
federal reserve act
Federal Reserve Act
  • Problems
    • No flexibility of $
    • $ all concentrated in northeast
    • Difficult to transfer$
    • Constant cycles of deep recessions
  • Federal Reserve
    • 3rd BUS
    • Controlled by government
    • Issued paper $
    • Allowed $ to circulate freely
    • 12 regional banks established
missionary diplomacy
Missionary Diplomacy
  • Wilson’s foreign policy
  • Refused to recognize or support governments that he felt were corrupt (based on morals)
  • Jones Act: Promised the Philippines independence in the future.
  • Eased tensions with Japan after California passed law that didn’t allow Japanese-Americans to own land
missionary diplomacy in la
Missionary Diplomacy (in LA)
  • Used the Roosevelt Corollary when he dispatches troops to Haiti and Dominican Republic for failure to pay debts (there for 19 years!)
  • Purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark
south of the border
South of the Border
  • In the 1910s, Mexico experienced a number a government coups
  • Conflict mostly resulted between rich and poor
  • Many US businesses exploited Mexican resources
  • This series of Mexican Revolutions threatened American investors.
south of the border1
South of the Border
  • 1914: US sailors wrongfully arrested, then released in Mexico
    • In retaliation, US seized Veracruz
    • US later leaves city.
    • Poor relations with Mexico continue
south of the border2
South of the Border
  • Pancho Villa was a Mexican bandit/hero/terrorist/ opposition leader.
  • Resented US treatment of Mexico
    • Murdered 16 American workers in Mexico
    • Invades(!) US, leads raids in New Mexico that lead to 19 deaths
south of the border3
South of the Border
  • Congress authorizes use of force in Mexico, but does not declare war
  • Wilson sends General John “Black Jack” Pershing and a regiment of soldiers into Mexico to hunt Pancho
  • Search for months, never capture Pancho
  • Recalled when US enters WWI
south of the border4
South of the Border

Never captured by the US, Pancho Villa was assassinated by an anonymous gunman in 1923.

Many Mexicans still consider him a hero.

world war i
World War I
  • 1914: WWI begins
    • Most Americans wish to remain neutral
  • Both sides (Central Powers and Allies) woo US support.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II: leader of Germany during WWI
  • Many German-Americans felt sympathy toward Central Powers
  • Many do become offended when Germany invades neutral Belgium
  • More anti-German sentiment after a briefcase full of espionage material found in NY subway.
wartime economy
Wartime Economy
  • US businesses made $ by selling to both sides early in war
  • British blockade eventually prevented Central Powers from receiving shipments from US.
  • Germany developed submarines (U-boats) to sneak through blockade
  • Subs attacked Allied ships, but could not always determine who was neutral (like the US)
tragedy at sea
Tragedy at Sea
  • 1915: The Lusitania is sunk by U-boats, 128 dead Americans.
  • German’s apologize, US accepts
  • Another ship containing Americans is sunk, Germany apologizes, US accepts
  • This pattern is repeated several times, each time anti-German feelings grow in US
1916 election
1916 Election
  • Democrats nominate Wilson
    • Slogan “He kept us out of war”
  • Republicans nominate Charles Evans Hughes
    • Platform: higher tariff, attack Mexico and be tough on Germany
  • Wilson wins a close reelection, 277 to 254 (electoral votes)
stay tuned
Stay Tuned!
  • Will Wilson keep us out of war indefinitely?
  • Will evidence of German espionage, U-boat activity, trouble with Mexico, and revolution in Russia draw the US from our neutral position in WWI?
  • What will the legacy of President Wilson be; progressive reformer or commander in chief?