CHAPTER 7 GROWTH AND DIVISION 1816-1832 Madison 1809-1817War of 1812 Monroe1817-1825“Era of Good Feelings” J.Q. Adams1825-1829Corrupt Bargain Jackson 1829-1837Old Hickory
CHAPTER 7 – Sec 1American Nationalism Monroe’s Era of Good Feelings. A. Economic Nationalism – a new program to bind the nation together. 1. A new national bank. (national currency) 2. Protection of American manu- facturers from foreign competition. (Tariff of 1816) 3. Building roads and canals. (private businesses and local governments funded this)
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 B. Judicial Nationalism– John Marshall helped unify the nation by ruling in three important cases that established dominance of the nation over the states.
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 1. Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee – decided that the Supreme Court had the authority to hear all appeals of state court decisions in cases involving federal statutes and treaties. ASSERTED THE SUPREME COURT’S SOVEREIGNTY OVER STATE COURTS. The Supreme Court is the nation’s court of final appeal.
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 2. McCulloch v. Maryland – Upheld constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S.; doctrine of “implied powers” provided Congress more flexibility to enact legislation. “Taxing the national bank was a form of interference & therefore unconstitutional.” MarylandNational Bank
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 3. Gibbons v. Ogden – Revoked an existing state monopoly; Supreme Court gave Congress the right to regulate interstate commerce. Hudson River N.J.
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 C. NATIONAL DIPLOMACY 1.Jacksoninvades Florida. a. Seminoles – Creek Native Americans who had fled to Florida and took a new name. Kinache – leader. Secretary of War Calhoun sent General Jackson into Florida to stop Seminoles from attacking in the South, but Jackson went too far and infuriated the Spanish. Eventually, the Spanish ceded Florida to the U.S. in the Adams-Onis Treaty and set the new boundaries for the U.S. Florida
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 2. THE MONROE DOCTRINE Spain now has only three islands: Cuba, Puerto Rico, & Santo Domingo In EUROPE – Great Britain, Austria, Prussia,and Russia (later France joins) form the Quadruple Alliance. All but G.B. want to help Spain regain its colonies in the Americas.
Chapter 7, Sec 1 THE PURPOSE OF THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE
Chapter 7, Sec 1 • President Monroe declared in 1823 that the American continents were “henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” NOTE: This was a bold act because the U.S. might not have been able to back it up!
Chapter 7 – Sec 1 ACTIONS THAT STRENGTHENED THE U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
Chapter 7, Sec 2EARLY INDUSTRY The Erie Canal - 1825
Chapter 7, Sec 2 I. A Revolution in Transportation A. Roads and Turnpikes. The National Road- the only federally funded transportation project of its time. Other toll roads were laid by states, localities, and private businesses.
Chapter 7, Sec 2 The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike
Chapter 7, Sec 2 B. Steamboats and Canals 1. The Clermont – 1807 Robert Fulton & Robert Livingston created the steamboat that made river travel more reliable & upstream travel easier. By 1840 – more than 3,300 miles of canals existed in the U.S.
Chapter 7, Sec 2 2. The “IRON HORSE” Peter Cooper – TOM THUMB carried the first 40 passengers at the speed of 10 miles per hour along 13 miles of track in Maryland. PERHAPS more than an other mode of transportation, trains helped settle the West & expand trade between the nation’s different regions.
Chapter 7, Sec 2 II. A NEW SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION A. The Industrial Revolution comes to America. 1. FREE ENTERPRISE – the ability to acquire capital and make individual choices about how to use it without strict government controls. 2. Samuel Slater - risked imprisonment when he reconstructed the British water frame from memory in Rhode Island. 3. Francis C. Lowell – opened textile mills in NE Massachusetts and introduced mass production of cotton cloth to the U.S.
Chapter 7, Sec 2 B.TechnologicalAdvances 1. ELI WHITNEY – introduced interchangeable parts - factory assembly 2. Samuel F.B. Morse - telegraph & Morse Code. The Associated Press were a group of newspapers who used the telegraph to share news over the wires.
Chapter 7, Sec 2 III. The Rise of Large Cities A. People from farms and villages began to move to the city to work in factories. B. The publishing industry arose to satisfy the growing demand for reading materials. C. Many educated women were writers, editors, & teachers.
Chapter 7, Sec 2 IV. WORKERS BEGIN TO ORGANIZE A. The Factory Worker – 1.3 million by 1860. B. LABOR UNIONS - workers who wanted to improve working conditions such as higher wages or shorter workdays. They used strikes – work stoppages. Most early unions had little success.
CHAPTER 7, Sec 2 V. THE FAMILY FARM A. Agriculture remained the country’s leading economic activity. B. The South – continued to concentrate on agriculture which needed the institution of slavery. C. The North – parts of the North began concentrating on manufacturing.
CHAPTER 7, Section 3 I.Southern Economy. A. Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, & Tennessee – tobacco (cash crop) B. SC & Georgia – Rice (cash crop) C. LA & TX – Sugarcane (cash crop) D. Inland SC and west through GA, AL, MS, and into Eastern TX – COTTON
Chapter 7, Sec 3 E. Eli Whitney - The Cotton Gin –– a machine that combed seeds out of cotton bolls. “COTTON IS KING” became the slogan of the South as cotton production skyrocketed. However, it also strengthen the institution of SLAVERY. Between 1820 & 1850 – slaves rose from 1.5 million to nearly 4 million.
Chapter 7, Sec 3 F. INDUSTRY LAGS IN THE SOUTH. 1. Only three large cities in the South: Baltimore, Charleston, & New Orleans 2. Industry – Coal, iron, salt, & copper mines 3. Only 16 % of the nation’s manufacturing was in the South
CHAPTER 7, Sec 3 II. SOCIETY IN THE SOUTH.
Chapter 7, Sec 3 III. SLAVERY 1. Most enslaved people worked in the fields in the South; however, some worked in industrial plants or as skilled workers such as blacksmiths, carpenters, & coopers. Some were house servants. 2. On farms & small plantations the TASK System was used. 3. On large plantations the GANG System was used.
Chapter 7, Sec 3 4. Frederick Douglas – prominent leader of the anti-slavery movement. SLAVE CODES – 1. Could not own property. 2. Could not leave slaveholders premises without permission. 3. Could not possess firearms. 4. Could not testify against a white person in court. 5. Could not learn to read & write. THEY WERE CONSIDERED PROPERTY.
Chapter 7, Sec 3 FREE AFRICAN AMERICANS 1. By 1850 some 225,000 free African Americans lived in the South – most lived in Maryland and Virginia. 2. About 196,000 lived in the North.
Chapter 7, Sec 3 IV. COPING WITH SLAVEMENT A. African American Culture 1. SONGS – helped them pass the day; for leisure; & some had secret meanings. “Nobody Knows de trouble I’ve Seen” “Swing Low Sweet Chariot” “Deep River”
Chapter 7, Sec 3 2. RELIGION. Large numbers of African Americans were Christians; however, they did incorporate many of their African religious traditions. B. RESISTANCE & REBELLION. 1. Some used work slowdowns 2. Broke tools, set fires 3. Some ran away 4. Some turned on the owners
Chapter 7, Sec 3 5. UPRISINGS Denmark Vesey – free slave who was hanged for an uprising in Charleston, SC. Nat Turner – enslaved minister in VA who believed God had chosen him to bring his people out of bondage. He and others killed 50 white men, women, & children and was caught and sentenced to hang.
Chapter 7, Sec 4GROWING SECTIONALISM IN 1819 the Union consisted of: 11 FREE STATES 11 SLAVE STATES
Chapter 7, Sec 4 I. The Missouri Compromise A. Missouri territory requested permission to enter as a slave state in 1819. B. Congressman Tallmadge (NY) proposed: *no new slaves could be brought into Missouri *enslaved children living in the state would be freed at the age of 25. The House approved it, but the Senate rejected it. Northerners voted for it, but Southerners voted against it.
Chapter 7, Sec 4 C. Maine (had been part of Massachusetts) wanted to enter the union as a separate state. The Senate combined Maine’s request with Missouri’s request. Missouri would be a slave state and Maine would be a free state. THIS PRESERVED THE BALANCE IN THE SENATE. D. NEXT – Sen. Thomas of Illinois proposed an amendment to prohibit slavery in the LA Purchase territory north of Missouri’s southern border. Slavery could expand into Arkansas, but no where else. E. HENRY CLAY helped get it voted through.
Chapter 7, Sec 4 F. NEW PROBLEM – Pro-slavery members of Missouri’s constitutional convention added a clause that prohibited free African Americans from entering the state. Clay got the Missouri legislature not to recognize the clause so that Missouri would be voted in as a state. Missouri Maine
Chapter 7, Sec 4 Men who enjoyed the support of leaders in their own state or region. II. THE ELECTION OF 1824 A. FOUR CANDIDATES – All Republicans – All “favorite sons” WEST – Henry Clay (KY) (for American System) Andrew Jackson (TN) (known as a hero) NEW ENGLAND – John Q. Adams (MA) (for Internal improvements) SOUTH – William Crawford (GA) (for States’ rights & strict constitution)
Chapter 7, Sec 4 B. ELECTION DAY: • Jackson won the popular vote. • Nocandidate won amajorityof the Electoral College. • The House had to decide who won between the top three candidates. • Clay was eliminated, but he had a lot of influence in the House. He backed Adams. • RESULTS: Adams– 13 votesWINNER ! Jackson - 7 votes Crawford – 4 votes
Chapter 7, Sec 4 Clay C. CORRUPT BARGAIN 1. Clay was accused of arranging votes for Adams in return for a cabinet post. 2. Adams named Clay as his Secretary of State after he was elected. 3. No evidence of a deal was ever found, but Jackson’s supporters began to be called Democratic-Republicans, then called NationalRepublicans and later they were called Democrats.
Chapter 7, Sec 4 III. John Quincy Adams as President Adams wanted a national university, scientific research & standard improvements; however, Congress only granted funds to improve rivers & harbors and to extend the National Road westward.
Chapter 7, Sec 4 IV. THE ELECTION OF 1828. A. John Q. Adamsvs.Andrew Jackson won 56% of the OLD popular vote HICKORY 178/261 Electoral votes B. MUDSLINGING – criticizing each other’s personalities and morals, was used in the election on both sides.
4.National Bank and 5. Tariffs 3. Interpretation of the Constitution Chapter 7, Sec 4 DIVISIVE ISSUES OF THE 1820s 2. States’ rights 1.SLAVERY