Taming the Borg: Design Principles for Transparent Use - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

taming the borg design principles for transparent use n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Taming the Borg: Design Principles for Transparent Use PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Taming the Borg: Design Principles for Transparent Use

play fullscreen
1 / 118
Taming the Borg: Design Principles for Transparent Use
145 Views
Download Presentation
axel-mclaughlin
Download Presentation

Taming the Borg: Design Principles for Transparent Use

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Taming the Borg:Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, Motorola joe.dvorak@motorola.com j.dvorak@media.mit.edu

  2. Outline • Why bad experiences? • Transparent Use Design Mindset: Operational Inertia • How is Operational Inertia Generated? • Break • Transparent Use Design Principles • Exercise: Applying the design principles Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  3. Putting Things in Perspective • These principles will not • End world hunger • Bring world peace • Make you rich • They can help you to design devices, services, and systems that allow people to perform their basic tasks without focusing on the technology helping them • Some of this will seem like common sense (it is) • This is still very much a work in progress Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  4. Some Not So Wonderful Experiences PC Boot up Repeatedly filling out same information Setting a digital watch Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  5. What Are Some Of Your Experiences? *

  6. Other Examples Small Buttons Conflicting Controls Jewelry Clasps Unexpected Behavior Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  7. Why are these experiences so unsatisfactory? PC Boot up Repeatedly filling out same information Setting a digital watch Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  8. Reading an email Ordering a product Obtain the time Nothing to do with the device or service used! Why the Bad Experience? • These situations have common elements • You had a specific task you wanted to accomplish • Using the PC • Visiting a web site • Setting your watch Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  9. Why the Bad Experience? • These situations have in common • In each case, the device or service (PC, Web page, digital watch) imposed itself between you and your real task • It impeded your ability to complete the real task as quickly and efficiently as you would have liked Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  10. Why the Bad Experience? • Real task had inherently nothing to do with the specific device used • Devices are only the mechanism chosen or required to perform task • Did not want to use the device for the sake of using and enjoying the device itself Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  11. Why the Bad Experience? • Device made you take notice of it • Switched your attention from real task to task of using the device • Getting the PC ready for use • Reentering the same information into the same fields of the web page • Navigating the confusing menu structure of the watch with the few, small, overloaded buttons to update settings Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  12. User Satisfaction User Satisfaction Abandonment Why Is This Important? • Perceived value changes • Before purchase and use • After purchase and use • Source of user dissatisfaction • Major reason for user abandonment of devices Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  13. Why are these experiences so unsatisfactory? PC Boot up Repeatedly filling out same information Setting a digital watch They each have too much Operational Inertia! Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  14. A Design Philosophy for Transparent Use Operational Inertia is the resistance a device, service, or system imposes against its use due to the way it is designed. Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  15. Setup Effort Amount of effort it takes to get the device ready for use as intended Interaction Complexity Effort required to use the device for its intended function Non-use Obtrusiveness How often the device makes us aware of its presence when we are not using it for the primary task Operational Inertia Components PC: Booting up, launching startup apps, etc Web page: Entering & reentering information Watch: Putting the watch on and orienting it on the wrist PC: Recovering from errors, using apps, etc Web page: Reading low contrast text, removing pop-ups Watch: Using the buttons to get information PC: Space taken up on desk, floor, etc Web page: Sounds audible when page is in the background, unsolicited popup windows Watch: Preventing you from placing hands in pockets, hitting objects in the environment, etc Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  16. User Tasks User Support Tasks Device Oriented Tasks What is a ‘Primary Task’? • Tasks typically one of three degrees of relevance to user • User Primary Tasks • Task of direct user interest (the “real” tasks) • Experience with these tasks forms bulk of user opinion about the performance of a system • User Support Tasks • Tasks of limited user interest • System tasks with visible user benefit & primary task relevance • Device Oriented Tasks • Tasks relevant only to the device Reading email Purchasing a product Finding the time of day Archiving old emails Requesting new credit card info Changing between Daylight Savings Time and Standard Time User Task Hierarchy PC increasing its virtual memory Re-logging in due to IP address change Low battery indication Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  17. What Is Meant By ‘Transparent Use’? • User’s primary task is accomplished without • Focus on required devices and/or services • Extensive manipulation of devices and/or services • Dealing with the constraints imposed by required devices and/or services • Does not require ‘simple’ devices • Devices must appear to user to be simple Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  18. Types of Operational Inertia • Device • Most common type • Service • Application, middleware service, etc Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  19. Types of Operational Inertia • Learning • Initial learning of the device, service, or system • Having to take ‘refresher’ courses • System • Multiple collaborating devices taken as a whole • The total user experience Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  20. Device Operational Inertia

  21. Setup Effort For a Phone • Retrieve • Orient • Open • Extend antenna • Look up the number • Dial • Wait for answer Device Operational Inertia • Setup Effort: Getting the device ready for use • Securing the device • Orienting the device in space • Opening covers, extending antennae, etc • Manipulating controls (e.g. dialing, navigating menus, etc) • Retrieving required setup information (phone numbers, etc) • Attaching device to user Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  22. Device Operational Inertia • Setup Effort: Getting the device ready for use • A device oriented activity • Rarely anything to do with user’s real task • Required by the device • Can reduce or eliminate desire to use the device or some of its services Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  23. Device Operational Inertia • Interaction complexity: Effort required to use the device • Includes obtrusiveness during use • How difficult it is to remember or give commands • Device’s mental model complexity • Confusing layout of controls • Difficult to understand icons Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  24. Device Operational Inertia • Interaction complexity: Effort required to use the device • The more closely the mental model of the device reflects the user’s mental model of the task they are trying to perform, the lower the Interaction Complexity • Actions required by the device not following the model are, from the user’s task point of view, irrelevant, a waste of time, and a prime source of frustration Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  25. Device Operational Inertia • Non use Obtrusiveness: Obtrusiveness of the device when not being used • How often the device makes its user uncomfortable when it is not being used • How often it constrains motion or causes discomfort as user moves or assumes different postures • How often it reminds me of its presence when its not being used for the primary task Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  26. Device Operational Inertia • Non use Obtrusiveness: Obtrusiveness of the device when not being used • High levels of non-use obtrusiveness • Can result in damage to the device and/or objects around it • Catching on objects • Being pulled off the body • Significantly reduce the user’s desire to wear and/or use the system, greatly reducing its effectiveness Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  27. Service Operational Inertia

  28. Service Operational Inertia • Setup Effort: Starting and configuring the service • Accessing the location of the application • Traversing directory trees • Specifying the command • Effort to authenticate or authorize use Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  29. Service Operational Inertia • Setup Effort: Starting and configuring the service • Providing parameters or required information • Configuring other devices required by the service • Configuring or terminating other services as required by the service Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  30. Service Operational Inertia • Interaction complexity: Effort required to use the service • Complexity/intuitiveness of the commands • Ease of getting help & effectiveness of help • Ease of navigating within service • Ability to extrapolate to the use of commands/functions used for the first time • Ease of recovery from errors Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  31. Service Operational Inertia • Non use Obtrusiveness: System resources required when not executing • Disk Space • Ancillary monitoring processes • Unsolicited requests for information • Device authorization as PAN node Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  32. Learning Operational Inertia

  33. Learning Operational Inertia • Initial learning of how to use the device, service, or system • Mobile devices pose unique challenges • Devices tend to be small, with small screens • Highly integrated devices can pose significant learning impedance • Cell phone manuals often 200+ pages Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  34. Learning Operational Inertia • Setup Effort • Getting the course/manual ready to use • Interaction Complexity • Difficulty in using, navigating lessons • Difficulty in understanding lesson content • Inability to repeat examples and exercises • Non Use Obtrusiveness • Disk space and resources occupied when not being used • Inappropriate, unsolicited messages asking if the user wants to take a refresher course Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  35. Learning Operational Inertia • Potential approaches • Selective help/instruction based user’s task and level of proficiency • Device hosted and based tutorial • Pushing more intelligence down to the device for more autonomous operation Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  36. System Operational Inertia

  37. System Operational Inertia • Setup Effort: Assembling, configuring the system • Gearing up / Tearing down • Appeal of integrated devices • System configuration • Specifying I/O devices • Specifying user preferences • Connecting devices • Transferring information to an alternate device for use Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  38. System Operational Inertia • Setup Effort: Assembling, configuring the system • System maintenance • Clothing presents special issues • Ensuring all devices fully charged • System authentication Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  39. System Operational Inertia • Interaction complexity: Difficulty of using the system as a whole • Caused by deficiencies in the way the devices of the system interact with one another • Difficulty of switching among different user interfaces • Specific UI bound to task • Same UI required for task duration Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  40. System Operational Inertia • Interaction complexity: Difficulty of using the system as a whole • Lack of collaboration among multiple UIs • No complementary use of multiple UIs within same task • Differing command formats, languages among devices, services • Data, feature incompatibility among devices Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  41. System Operational Inertia • Non use Obtrusiveness: The obtrusiveness of all elements & devices in the system taken as a whole • Degree to which the system makes user aware element interaction when not using any of its components • Poor placement of connectors or attachment points on the clothing for devices • Makes system obtrusive, regardless of how well the devices themselves are designed Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  42. System Operational Inertia • Non use Obtrusiveness: The obtrusiveness of all elements & devices in the system taken as a whole • Often not apparent until after elements of the system are logically integrated • Difficult for open systems that accept devices from third parties • May need to accommodate new types of devices never envisioned when the system was created • Increases system OI when the new devices are used if system interfaces are not robust Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  43. Identify Sources of Operational Inertia in Your Experiences • Types • Device • Service • Learning • System Components Setup Effort Interaction Complexity Non-use Obtrusiveness *

  44. Jewelry Clasps Small buttons Conflicting controls Other Examples Setup Effort Interaction Complexity Non Use Obtrusiveness POLA Violations Interaction Complexity Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  45. Where is the rating for Ease of Use? Reducing Operational Inertia • Goal is to eliminate or minimize OI • Difficult to do • Lack of experience thinking like this • Some movement in this direction • Zero configuration services • Reducing Total Cost of Ownership Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  46. OI? OI? Reducing Operational Inertia • Difficult to do • Tension among OI elements • Reducing Non-use Obtrusiveness often increases interaction complexity • Reducing Interaction complexity often increases Setup Effort • Highly dependent on the quality of the system’s architectures Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  47. Reducing Operational Inertia • Focusing on user’s primary task during development • Activity Based Design vs. Human Based Design • Early user feedback in real world use • Reducing complexity is not always straightforward • Some devices are inherently complex • Must reduce visible complexity • Complexity that is visible to, and experienced by, the user GM Hy-wire Concept car Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  48. Reducing Operational Inertia • Approach wearables as a system • Appear to the user as a single system, composed of a set of logically integrated, collaborating devices • Not a collection of individual devices • User utilizes the different devices in a consistent manner Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  49. ZOID and NZOID • ZOID - Zero Operational Inertia Device/ service/ system • No Setup Effort, No Interaction Complexity, No Non-use Obtrusiveness • Currently an idealized abstraction Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com

  50. ZOID and NZOID • NZOID - Near Zero Operational Inertia Device/ service/ system • “Minimal” Setup Effort, Interaction Complexity, and Non-use Obtrusiveness • Example: eyeglasses, contacts • Design mindset for device, system, and service development What NZOIDs Are You Wearing? Next: Design Principles Design Principles for Transparent Use Joe Dvorak, joe.dvorak@motorola.com