PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN Are the directions, guidelines, or formulas for using the elements of design
What are the elements of design? Space, shape, form, line, texture, color Some short fellas like tall chicks
8 principles of design Proportion, scale, balance, rhythm, emphasis, unity, variety, harmony Princesses Scare Bears Rescuing Elegant Unicorns Very Happily
Principles of Designwe’ll go through them individually so you don’t need to write this list… • Balance • Symmetrical • Asymmetrical • Rhythm • Opposition • Transition • Radiation • Gradation • Repetition • Emphasis • Proportion and Scale • Harmony • Unity • Variety
BALANCE • A sense of equilibrium. • When establishing balance consider visual weight created by size, color, texture and number of objects.
TYPES OF BALANCE • SYMMETRICAL • Achieved by placing identical objects on either side of a central point. • ASYMMETRICAL • Achieved by placing different objects of equal visual weight on either side of a central point.
SYMMETRICAL BALANCE • Creates a quiet, restful feeling. • Suggests restraint, orderliness, formality. • Also called, FORMAL balance.
Symmetrical Balance • Identical candle sticks, plates, sit on the mantle at each side of the wall mounted mirror.
Symmetrical Balance • Windows draped in identical fabrics, flank both sides of the grandfather clock.
Symmetrical Balance • Identical light sconces are placed on both sides of framed picture.
Asymmetrical Balance • Creates more interesting arrangements. • Suggests informality, relaxed. • Also referred to as INFORMAL balance.
Asymmetrical Balance • Mirror is placed off center on the mantle. • Tray and bottles on either side of the mirror help to balance it out.
Asymmetrical Balance • Wall hangings of the same visual weight are hung on each side of the plant stand. • Chair balances out the fireplace on the other side of the room.
Asymmetrical Balance • Items on the mantle are arranged using Asymmetrical Balance. The picture is slightly off center with large plant on the left is balanced by a group of vases on the right.
If time… • http://www.hgtv.com/video/the-art-of-balance-video/index.html
Grab a book • Read page 433-434 • Answer question 3 on page 443 on a lined sheet of paper. This will be turned in at the end of this unit.
Assignment Using white paper, glue and construction paper create 1 asymmetrical room or wall arrangement 1 symmetrical room or wall arrangement Label them using professional lettering practiced in class Worth 15 points Due before you leave class You can play the chair game if you finish your assignment. Write your name on the back
RHYTHM • Like music makes you want to move to the beat, rhythm leads the eye from one point to another, creates motion. Our eyes/brains search for interesting and beautiful or even weird things to look at.
TYPES OF RHYTHM • by Repetition • by Gradation • by Radiation • by Opposition • by Transition
Rhythm By Repetition • Rhythm created by duplicating (repeating) shapes, colors, pattern, line, texture. • Beams in the ceiling are repeated. Window panes, repeat. Stripes on ottoman and chair are repeated.
Rhythm By Gradation • Rhythm created by a gradual change in size or color. • Paint on wall changes gradually in value.
Rhythm By Radiation • Rhythm created by identical objects coming from a central axis. • Tall Grasses “radiate” from the center of the vase on this bathroom vanity.
Rhythm By Opposition • Rhythm created by lines at right angles or contrasting colors. • Contrasting black and white tiles and the lines intersecting at right angles.
Rhythm By Transition • Rhythm created by curved lines that carry your eye across a straight surface. • Window treatments that gently swag down, create a soft rhythm by transition.
What Type of Rhythm? • Repetition? • Gradation? • Radiation? • Opposition? • Transition?
Where do you see the types of rhythm in our classroom? • Repetition? • Gradation? • Radiation? • Opposition? • Transition?
In a group Look at the contents of the envelopes and identify and explain where you see the types of rhythm: • Repetition? • Gradation? • Radiation? • Opposition? • Transition?
Grab a book • Read page 434-436
Assignment • On the round sheet of paper provided, using the 5 types of rhythm, you will create a design for a plate. • Before you begin, identify the color scheme you will be using. You may only use the washable markers provided. • Your design may be symmetrical or asymmetrical. • You may have a focal point in the center. • Do not draw within an inch of the edge of your paper • Only write on one side. • Paperclip your drawing to a lined sheet of paper describing the types of rhythm and how you used them in your design.
Assignment Create (using paper or on the computer) a nice card to give to another student in class. The card needs to show the 5 types of rhythm. *Before you give the card away, you will turn it in with a paper describing the 5 types of rhythm and how they were used in your card. Worth 25 points Or alternate assignment
Alternate assignment Create a mobile that will illustrate the 5 types of rhythm. You may use magazine pictures, construction paper, or any other materials that you find to create each type of rhythm. Each type of rhythm has to be defined and explained why it is that type of rhythm and it must be attached to each example. Worth 25 points Due by the end of class
SCALE & PROPORTION • Scale relates to the size of a design in relation to the height and width of the area in which it is placed. • Proportion relates to the parts of the object and how one part relates to another.
SCALE • Relates to the actual and relative size and visual weight of the design and its components. • Furniture and accessories must be in scale to the room
PROPORTION • The Golden Mean – the division of a line or form so that the smaller portion has the same ratio to the larger as the larger has to the whole. • Effective Ratios are 2:3, 3:5, 5:8, 4:7, etc. • Square is the least pleasing shape. • Rectangles are more pleasing, especially with a ratio of 2:3.
PROPORTION • The creative use of color, texture, pattern, and furniture arrangement can create illusions of properly proportioned space.
SCALE & PROPORTIONToo Big, Too Small, Just Right • This chairs massive scale diminishes everything around it.
Too Small. • The chairs light palate accentuates its skinny scale.
Just Right. • This club chair matches the scale of the sofa.
Too Big. • Coffee table is over-scaled for the sofa.
Too Small. • Table not only looks out of proportion, it functions poorly as well.
Just Right. • The table is substantial enough to anchor the furniture grouping, yet it leaves room for traffic flow around both ends.
Too Tall. • Used as an end table, this wood pedestal towers over the sofa, making the sofa appear small and the pairing awkward.
Too Short. • The lamp would need to be fully stretched to offer good illumination from this low point.
Just Right. • The perfect pairing, visually and physically, is a tabletop that is a couple of inches shorter than the sofa arm.
Too Big. • The large-scale motif and strong colors of this floral wallpaper overpower the petite powder room as well as the fixtures and furniture in it.