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WORLD WAR I. The Spark: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. Allied Powers Belgium Serbia England Russia France Later Italy, and U.S. and Japan BSERF. Central Powers Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Germany Austria-Hungary BOGA. The Teams. The Coaches. Central Powers.

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the teams
Allied Powers

Belgium

Serbia

England

Russia

France

Later Italy, and U.S. and Japan

BSERF

Central Powers

Bulgaria

Ottoman Empire

Germany

Austria-Hungary

BOGA

The Teams
the coaches
The Coaches

Central Powers

Franz Joseph, A-H Wilhelm II, Germany

Allied Powers

Czar Nicholas II, Russia, George Clemenceau, FR David Lloyd George, GB Woodrow Wilson, US

playing field1
Eastern Front

Mostly in Russia, along the German/Russian border

Type of fighting used = more mobile

Problems – neither side able to achieve a complete victory

Battle lines changed often (fluid)

Western Front

Mostly in France, along German/French Border

Type of fighting used = Trench Warfare

Problems = stalemate…

Stalemate – deadlock, where neither side gains an advantage

War of Attrition – no quick victory; each side tries to wear the other side down

Playing Field
1 st play schieffen plan
1st Play: Schieffen Plan
  • Schlieffen Plan – war plan for Germany, created by Alfred von Schlieffen
    • Plan to avoid a two front war
    • Attack France through neutral Belgium
    • Defeat the French in 6 weeks before Russia can mobilize
    • Turn and fight Russia
  • Problems:
      • Heavily fortified areas in Belgium
      • Strong resistance from France
      • Russia mobilized quicker
      • Britain attacked from the north
1 st game battle of the marne
1st Game: Battle of the Marne
  • German’s advance into France
  • Pushed back by French at Marne
  • Stalemate and Trench Warfare begin
  • Ends Schlieffen Plan
which of the following correctly represents the allied powers
Which of the following correctly represents the Allied Powers
  • Austria-Hungary, Italy, Germany,
  • Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Belgium
  • Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Germany, Austria-Hungary
  • Russia, France, Great Britain, Germany
which of the following describes the fighting on the western front
Which of the following describes the fighting on the western front?
  • Trench warfare, Stalemate
  • Mobile, Changing Battle lines
  • Fought primarily in Russia
  • Fought primarily in France
  • Both 1 and 4
  • Both 2 and 3
which of the following describes the schlieffen plan and its failure
Which of the following describes the Schlieffen Plan and its failure?
  • France’s plan to defeat Germany quickly; Belgium mobilized to quickly
  • Germany’s plan to avoid a two front war; Russia mobilized too quickly
  • Austria-Hungary’s plan to attack Serbia; Russia mobilized too quickly
slide18

Do you think we have enough food and supplies to outlast them?

Do you think we have enough food and supplies to outlast them?

No-Mans

land

These lines haven't moved for a year!

These lines haven't moved for a year!

French soldiers firing over their own dead

All Quiet on the Western Front – trench warfare (9:27)

bellwork
Bellwork
  • Explain the 4 phases of the Armenian Genocide
  • Explain which picture depicts that phase and why.
battle of verdun

Battle of Verdun

German attack on French

Longest battle of WWI = 300 days

Total casualties – 700,000

No clear winner

Stalemate

battle of somme
Battle of Somme
  • British/French surprise attack against Germans
  • British losses 1st day – 60,000 men
  • Total Casualties – 1Million+
  • No clear winner
  • Stalemate
  • Tank introduced
1 st game eastern front battle of tannenberg
1st Game Eastern FrontBattle of Tannenberg
  • Russia vs. Germany/Austria-Hungry
  • Russian Advantages
    • Largest army (15:1 ratio Russian to German)
      • Not well trained
      • Lacked weapons
  • Russian Disadvantages
    • Least industrialized
    • Lack of Modern Technology
  • Who won?
    • GERMANS
hyundai commercial
Hyundai Commercial
  • How does the commercial relate to the German and Russian forces?
  • Who portrays Germany?
  • Who portrays Russia?
battle of gallipoli
Battle of Gallipoli
  • Britain’s (Winston Churchill) Game Plan :
    • Open supply route to Russia
    • Capture Dardanelle Straight gaining access to Black Sea
    • Eliminate the Ottoman Empire from the war
  • Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire – promised land by A-H to defend

Dardanelle’s at all cost

  • Allies fail
weapons webquest
Weapons Webquest
  • New inventions made WWI different then any other war that was previously fought
  • WWI introduced:
    • Submarines
    • Airplanes
    • Poison Gas
    • Machine Guns
    • Tanks
  • Your Task
    • Complete the Webquest located under my World History Files. Once Webquest is complete, describe the impact each weapon had on the war.
america neutral

America Neutral?

Not our war

Businesses could sell to both sides

Recent immigrants from both sides

while watching the video
While watching the video
  • List 4 reasons why the US enters WWI.
reason for us entry
Reason for US Entry
  • Ties to GB-Common Language and culture
  • Propaganda
  • Sinking of the Lusitania
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Zimmerman Note
sinking of the lusitania
Sinking of the Lusitania
  • German u-boat torpedoes British passenger ship off Irish coast-May 7th, 1915
  • 1200 die, 124 Americans
unrestricted submarine warfare
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • German u-boats sink military, passenger, and merchant ships on sight
  • 4 US ships sunk between Jan-Mar 1917
zimmerman note
Zimmerman Note
  • Note from German Foreign Minister to German Ambassador in Mexico
    • Convince Mexico to go to war against US
    • Mexico to gain territory lost in Mex-Am War
    • Prevent U.S. from joining war in Europe
    • US declares war: April 2, 1917
america at war

America At War

American Expeditionary Forces

“Dough Boys”

http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/overthere.htm

exit slip
Exit Slip
  • List two characteristics of the battles in WWI
  • Describe two reasons why the US entered the WWI.
pre revolutionary russia
Pre-Revolutionary Russia
  • Nicholas II became Tsar in 1884
  • Only true autocracy left in Europe
  • Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God
  • No type of representative political institutions for workers
slide46
Imperial Family ruled for 300 years
  • Czar Nicolas was unprepared and foolish
  • He was influenced by his German born wife, Alexandra, and his concern for his 4 daughters and his son, Aleksei, who had hemophilia
the revolution of 1905
The Revolution of 1905
  • Workers unhappy-had lost the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-Poverty
  • Workers were concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow
  • Help from the countryside: poor peasants
  • Duma-Legislative body-established-no real political power though
alexandra the power behind the throne
Alexandra: The Power Behind the Throne
  • Alexandra was even more blindly committed to autocracy than her husband
  • Rasputin a monk with supposed psychic powers had influence over her
  • He seemingly cured Aleksei-hypnosis
  • Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy-womanizer, alcoholic, affair with Czarina
  • Video-Grigori Rasputin Biography
the collapse of the imperial government
The Collapse of the Imperial Government
  • Nicholas leaves for the Front—September, 1915
  • Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos-inflation, food and fuel shortages
  • Rumors of an affair
  • Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason
the collapse of the imperial government cont
The Collapse of the Imperial Government (cont)
  • Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916
  • Cyanide, shot 4 times, thrown into a river-still living
  • Alexandra refused to receive assistance of the Russian Middle Class
  • Wartime economy was completely mismanaged
the two revolutions of 1917
The Two Revolutions of 1917
  • The March Revolution (March 12)
  • The November Revolution (November 6)
the russian revolution 7 key events
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events
  • March Revolution
  • March 8th through 15th, 1917, there is rioting in the streets of Petrograd (St. Petersburg) over a lack of food and fuel. (Clip-fall/Tsar)
  • Government orders troops who are sent in to break up the riots
  • The Soldiers refused to fire, and join the rioters.

Note: the March Revolution is not organized by the revolutionary intellectuals but by working people.

the russian revolution 7 key events1
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events

2. Abdication

  • The Czar (Nicholas II) gives up the thrown
  • Giving up the thrown is also known as abdication
  • This ends the 300 year Romanov Rule

A new government will begin…

the russian revolution 7 key events2
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events

3. Provisional Government Established =

  • Democracy – legislature made up of middle class
  • Alexander Kerensky –Prime Minister
  • Big Mistake: Didn’t withdraw from WWI
  • Challenged by Petrograd Soviet-Workers
  • Soviets– elective body of town workers
  • Menshevik –slow transition to communism
  • Bolsheviks-led by Lenin-immediate revolution by intellectuals and creation of a communist state-Workers of the World Unite!
the russian revolution 7 key events3
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events
  • Problems for the Provisional Government
    • Desertion
    • Worsening transportation
    • Drop in armament production
    • Weak
    • All this leads to loss of support…
    • Soviets promote social reforms…
the russian revolution 7 key events4
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events

4. November Revolution =

  • Bolshevik Beliefs – small number of intellectuals and workers lead a radical revolution against Noblemen/Lords and middle class
  • Lenin – leader of Bolsheviks
    • Promised “Peace, Land, and Bread”
    • Withdraw from war, all peasants given land, everyone would have enough to eat
the russian revolution 7 key events5
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events
  • November Revolution Continued…
  • Coup d’etat – sudden overthrow of government (Provisional government in Russia) by people from within a country
  • Socialist State
    • Workers control of factories and mines
    • Land distribution to peasants
    • End private property
    • Create Equality
  • Communists – name given to Bolsheviks based on the ideas of Karl Marx
the russian revolution 7 key events6
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events

5. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk =

  • Treaty to end fighting between Germany and Russia in WWI.
  • Reasons Russia gets out:
    • Lenin/communists take Absolute Power
    • Large number of troops being killed
    • Food shortages throughout the country
    • Wanted to focus on stabilizing the economy and creating equality
  • Russia lose much of Western territory and 1/3 of population to Germany
  • Germany can concentrate on Western Front – ends 2-Front war
the russian revolution 7 key events7
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events

6. Civil War (1918-1921) =

  • Reds (also known as communists) VS Whites (Army – supporters of the Czar)
  • Leon Trotsky – communist leader of the Red Army
    • Used force and education to promote loyalty to communism
  • Whites – received military aid from the Allies and the United States – why?
    • Promised to defeat Reds quickly and get Russia back into WWI
  • Villages burned, workers and peasants starved, economy worsened
  • Lenin/Communists gain control by 1921
the russian revolution 7 key events8
The Russian Revolution =7 Key Events

7. Imperial Execution (1918) =

  • Czar Nicholas II and his family executed
  • Video Rasputin song
which of the following ends russia s participation in wwi
Which of the following ends Russia’s participation in WWI?
  • Russia signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • The creation of a provisional government
  • Lenin signed a deal with the US to continue a two front war
  • United States joins the war effort
who becomes the leader of the bolsheviks and leads russia out of the war
Who becomes the leader of the Bolsheviks and leads Russia out of the war?
  • Leon Trotsky
  • Joseph Stalin
  • Vladimir Lenin
  • Otto Von Bismarck
global war
Global War
  • Resources and soldiers from colonies
  • Fought in Asia and Africa - Allies gained German colonies
  • British get help from Middle East colonies of Ottoman Empire conquered the Ottoman’s – expected independence at war’s end
global war1
Global War
  • What did imperialized nations want?
  • Citizenship OR
  • Independence
  • What was the outcome?
    • Didn’t gain independence, European empires extended their empires at the expense of the colonies
end of war
End of War
  • Second Battle of the Marne (7/18) - Last Major German Offensive
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates
  • Armistice – Agreement to end fighting 11:00am 11/11/18
lives lost
Lives Lost

Russia 3.7 million

France 1.7 million

Great Britain 995,000

United States 117,000

Germany 2.4 million

Austria 1.5 million

Ottoman Empire 2.9 million

Total Deaths 29 million

6 million-mangled, disfigured, deformed

Total Casualties 37M

wilson s fourteen points

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

Three Goals:

Ensure lasting peace

Right to choose government

League of Nations –

International body of representatives from each country with the purpose of maintaining peace

1. Why did the US not want to join the League of Nations?

league of nations formed
League of Nations Formed
  • United States didn’t join
    • Congress feared it would drag us into another war
    • Weakened the power of the League of Nations
    • No power to enforce its decisions
paris peace conference
Paris Peace Conference
  • 5 Separate Peace Treaties known as the Peace of Paris
  • Central Powers not invited
  • Big 4 - Allied Powers: Great Britain, US, France, Italy
treaty of versailles
Germany got a R.A.W. Deal

R.eparations – payments to victors for war damages ($33B)

A.llied Punishments

De-militarized Germany

Took Germany’s colonies

Gave Alsace Lorraine to France

Took Saar Basin (coal supplies)

Took Rhineland (buffer zone)

W.ar Guilt – Germany had to accept total blame for the war

Treaty of Versailles

R.

A.

W.

map of europe re drawn
Map of Europe Re-drawn

Use the maps below to answer the questions on the last page. Cite specific examples to support your answers

Created by the Congress

Of Vienna - created nationalistic

feelings

Yugoslavia – Serbia,

Bosnia, Hertzegovenia

Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia

which of the following was not a condition of the treaty of versailles
Which of the following was not a condition of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany must take complete blame for the war
  • Germany must pay reparations
  • German colonies will become independent
  • Germany must de-militarize
which of the following is true regarding the league of nations
Which of the following is true regarding the League of Nations?
  • It was to act as a police force around the world
  • It was to act as a world court
  • It was to maintain international peace
  • The U.S. didn’t join
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Both 3 and 4
which country was yugoslavia made from
Which country was Yugoslavia made from
  • Germany
  • Russia
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
why was wwi a cause of wwii
Why was WWI a cause of WWII
  • It created resentment and anger among Russians
  • It created anger and resent among Germans
  • It was meant to be a peace among equals, but failed
  • The US took too much territory