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Developing a statistical framework for measuring the digitisation of Europe’s cultural heritage. N u m e r i c  Phillip Ramsdale The study was conducted for the European Commission by the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy. N u m e r i c WHY? Long-term goals.

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developing a statistical framework for measuring the digitisation of europe s cultural heritage

Developing a statistical framework for measuring the digitisation of Europe’s cultural heritage

Numeric

Phillip Ramsdale

The study was conducted for the European Commission by the

Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy

n u m e r i c why long term goals
NumericWHY? Long-term goals
  • better identify the total European digitisation effort and progress;
  • stimulate further digitisation by demonstrating the current progress;
  • better inform stakeholders that have an interest or direct involvement in digitisation policies and funding.
study objectives
Study objectives

Statistics were intended to develop indicators for:

  • digitisation costs, investments and funding sources;
  • volume and growth of digitised resources, related to the analogue collections held by institutions;
  • the characteristics of digitised outputs, including their formats and user access.
what objects are digitised
What objects are digitised?

Collective memory of print: books, journals, newspapers, for example

Images held by any institution

Museum objects

Archival documents

Audio-visual materials, such as films and broadcasts

Granularity becomes coarser as the classification is summarised.

the design
The “Design”
  • Since no primary data existed for all domains, it was necessary to collect data directly from individual institutions.
  • Identify the appropriate institutions from which to collect the data.
  • Use a “Standard” questionnaire so that consistent definitions could be followed in each country.
the method put simply
The Method – put simply
  • Identify those institutions holding collections that represent the significant part of the nation’s potential digital heritage.
  • Survey a sample of these.
  • Use the survey results to infer the overall scale of digitisation activity and expenditure to all other relevant institutions.
the process
The “Process”
  • Establish the number of institutions in each country. (All types / domains)
  • Identify the “Relevant” institutions.
  • Draw a representative sample.
  • Introduce the survey questionnaire.
  • Chase the response.
  • Check the responders’ data.
  • Scrutinise the survey results.
  • Review and refine method for the future.
the national approaches provided for translations of the questionnaire into
Czech

Dutch

English

Estonian

French

German

Hungarian

Latvian

Lithuanian

Polish

Portuguese

Romanian

Slovenian

Spanish

The “National” approaches provided for translations of the questionnaire into:
designing the target
Designing the “TARGET”

Archives, Broadcasters, Film Institutes,

Museums, Libraries,

Heritage Agencies

ALL INSTITUTIONS

SAMPLE

Digitisation of collections will significantly enhance access to the country's cultural heritage

RELEVANT

INSTITUTIONS

1,539 > ¼ of relevant

the relevant institution
The “Relevant” institution
  • “Institutions possessing collections that would be of significant value to the digitised heritage of the nation”.
  • At what point does “Significant” become “Insignificant”?
  • The guidance spelt out some examples, but assumed National Co-ordinators would be better placed to decide.
interpretation
Interpretation

Weighting – flexing the results to eliminate bias arising from the pattern of response.

Summary statistics – choosing the appropriate measure to describe all institutions that are so diverse in their purpose.

choice of statistical measures
Choice of statistical measures

Example of cost distribution for digitising text combining images on the same page

with on line catalogues
% with on-line catalogues

Range of error for 90% confidence

Survey errors

All

a few words word about quality
A few words word about quality

More than X% of responders reported on:

90% institutional staff; possession of digitisation plans.

80% digitisation staff; on-line catalogues; undertakers of digitisation; access policies to digitised materials.

70% institutional budget; sources of funding for digitisation; progress towards digitisation.

a few more words about quality
A few more words about quality

More than X% of responders reported on:

60% digitisation budget; availability of digitised material on the internet.

Less than X% of responders reported on:

40% number of users accessing digitised materials.

statistics summarised cover
Statistics summarised cover:
  • budgets
  • staff time
  • formal plans
  • funding sources
  • contractors
  • progress
  • formats
  • unit costs
  • access policies
  • internet availability
  • cost of plans
  • analysis by type of institution, and
  • type of materials held in collections
problem definitions
Problem definitions
  • User access to digitised materials
  • Archive records
  • Museum digitisation (catalogues / materials)
  • Newspapers
  • Monuments
relevant institutions
“Relevant” institutions
  • Archives – Government documentation / records offices.
  • Museums – Collections of national importance.
  • Libraries – National, University founded before 1900, Public libraries acting as the main reference centre for regions containing at least 5% of population. i.e. Wider than CENL.
  • Audio-visual - Members of ACE / FIAF and National Broadcaster.
  • Significant others!

?

?

summary issues 1
Summary issues (1)
  • Clarify the definition of Relevant institutions
  • Encourage universal approaches to measuring the analogue collections
  • Develop incentives to respond to surveys
  • Concentrate the questionnaire on “hard facts”, and ...
  • Streamline the questionnaire
the measures 7 questions
The “measures” – 7 Questions

Inputs

  • Cost in previous 12 months
  • Staff devoted to digitisation projects
  • Cost of planned digitisation 12/+ months

Outputs

  • Digitised pages / hours / etc last year
  • Same assumed in plans

Outcomes

  • On/off-line user visits in previous 12 months
  • Proportion of such visits that were “Free”
summary issues 2
Summary issues (2)
  • National planning returns to encourage the collection of data
  • Provide a checklist of digitisation processes
  • Review definitions
  • Respect the considerable differences between domains, but consistently cover them all
summary main points
Summary: Main points
  • Short questionnaire for high-level national summaries – Benchmarking for more specific investigations.
  • Address the definition of “Relevant” institutions.
  • Review the use of the statistics on a regular basis.