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World war ii

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  1. Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 11 World war ii North Africa, Mediterranean & Atlantic 1941-1945

  2. Admin • Anything you want to include • Quizzes • Assignments • Etc

  3. Last Class Navy during Inter-War Period (1918-1939) • Treaty of Versailles • State of world navies • Naval Arms Limitations • Washington Conferences • Birth of new technologies • Aircraft carrier

  4. Today WWII in the Africa, Med, Atlantic • Causes of war • Navies in Atlantic, Africa & Med • US navy involvement • End of war in Europe

  5. 8 Key Themes • Navy as an instrument of foreign policy • Interaction between Congress and Navy • Interservicerelations • Technology • Leadership • Strategy & Tactics • Evolution of US Naval Doctrine • Future missions of Navy and USMC

  6. Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 13 WWII Naval War in Europe

  7. Why study separately? • Battle for the Atlantic • Battle for the Pacific

  8. Allied Navy Roles in European War • Convoy Escort • Supply protection • Anti-submarine warfare • Troop Transport • Dunkirk evacuation • Amphibious Assault execution • Navy surface gunfire support • Naval aircraft support • Random surface engagements • Battleships, cruisers, carrier • Air superiority

  9. Axis Navy Roles in European War • Supply-Chain Destruction • “Surface Raiders” • U-Boats (submarines) • Troop Transport • Plans for Britain • Northern Africa • Random surface engagements - Battleships, cruisers, carrier • Air superiority

  10. Warning of Impending War Germany Japan - Extremism - Repudiates Treaty of Versailles - Military development Military Mobilization • Rhineland • Austria • Sudetenland • Czechoslovakia • Extremism • Military development Military Mobilization • China • South-east Asia

  11. Phase I Territorial Gains 1936 1939 • Rhineland • Czechoslovakia • Poland 1937 1940 • Nothing • Denmark • Norway • Holland • Belgium • France • Britain (Failure) • Soviet Union 1938 • Austrian “Anschluss” • Sudetenland

  12. Germany Post WWI

  13. Rhineland 1936

  14. “Anschluss” (Austria) 1938

  15. Sudetenland 1938

  16. Czechoslovakia 1939

  17. Poland Sept 1, 1939 * Official Start of War / UK, France declare War

  18. Start of War in Europe • Germany & USSR invade Poland • UK and France declare war • Germany declares war • Italy declares war • During French invasion • US : Neutral

  19. What about the Navy? Initial Allied Naval Strategy Initial German Naval Strategy Big Picture • Prevent German fleet from getting into Atlantic • Preserve control of seas • Supply • Troop movement ** Combined British and French fleets made largest fleet in the world. Confident they could control the seas. Big Picture • Control of seas • Supply • Troop movement • Cripple Allied supply • Convoy Surface “Raiders” • Submarines “Wolf packs” • Air superiority

  20. What about the Navy? Initial Allied Warfare Initial German Warfare WWI-style • Blockade • Mine laying • Convoys • Royal Air Force WWI-style • Submarine warfare • Luftwaffe • NEW TECHNOLOGY: Aircraft Carriers

  21. Denmark & Norway Apr 1940

  22. Holland May 10-15, 1940

  23. Belgium May 28, 1940

  24. “Miracle” of Dunkirk - Allies enveloped Hope: Rescue 45,000 Actual: 338,000 rescued Reason: • Army holds back Germans 9 Days • British Navy and merchantmen combine efforts

  25. Verge of Defeat Defeat Armistice: 22 June 1940 Create “Vichy France” Brits start seizing French ships Strategic Implications No western threat British blockade ineffective Britain all alone France on Verge of Defeat French plead for British Support Brits plead for France to release their fleet *Neither side agrees

  26. France Armistice June 22, 1940

  27. How are the Allies Doing? Poorly • Only Brits left • Remnants of Army • Combined Fleet split in half • German Empire enormous and growing • Men & military resources • British supply dwindling • Italy now at war with Britain • Mediterranean

  28. You are Hitler • What do you do next?

  29. Battle of Britain “Operation Sea Lion” August 1940

  30. Hitler’s Next Target • Wants to defeat Britain • Plan: Amphibious Assault • Army and Navy dispute over where to land • Both agree: Must control air first German Luftwaffe begins bombing campaign and the Battle of Britain begins

  31. You are Churchill • What do you do?

  32. Battle of Britain Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O71FJDkfngY&feature=related

  33. British Strategy & Tactics • Enormous resources into Royal Air Force British Advantage 1. English channel • Move fleet from Scapa Flow 2. Logistics 3. Advanced Warning • Radar • More important: “Ultra” – German message coding

  34. Short Answer Long Answer No, Because 1. Brits exploit their advantage a. Losses: (Britain) 915 fighters (Germany) 1733 aircraft 2. Germans get distracted a. Bomb cities rather than airfields and radar installations b. Divert attention to invading USSR and saving Italians in North Africa Does Germany Win? No

  35. Early American Role “Neutrality” Supply, Supply, Supply Ready the Troops

  36. Early American Role • Supposed “Neutrality” • FDR: American interest in defeating fascism • Diplomacy: “Equal opportunity for American goods” • Reality: “Preserve UK through material support”

  37. Early American Role 1. Loan 50 WWI Destroyers to Britain 2. Lend Lease (March 1941) to Britain (later USSR) • “Neutrality Patrols” - In response to several incidents with Germans inspecting or sinking US merchant ships 4. Destroyer escort as far as Iceland • Unofficial convoy escort • Dangerous life for “non-combatant” sailors 5. Escort in and out of British ports

  38. German War on Supply 1. Brits assumed “Unrestricted Sub Warfare” • Brits arm merchant vessels • Germans remove submarine restrictions • Germans increase submarine war - Hone “Wolf-pack” tactics Problem: Brits mined English Channel. North sea is only option. But subs use too much fuel going through North Sea.

  39. Wolf-pack Tactics 1. Surface sighting 2. Relay to headquarters • Assign of pack • Trail and study • Multi-angle attack at night * Prefer independent ship **”Greenland Air Gap”

  40. German War on Supply Big Events: Norway, France (50% time save)

  41. Total Numbers • 2,775 Allied merchants sunk • 1,175 U-Boats committed / 781 lost • “The Cruel Sea” – Nicholas Monsarrat

  42. How were the U-Boats Defeated? Convoys • More convoy boats • Different types of convoy boats • Corvettes & frigates • Longer escorts • Air escort Technology • More accurate surface radar • More accurate asdic (sonar) • Better depth charges Cryptology • Brits crack German Navy’s “Ultra” cipher (Twice)

  43. How were the U-Boats Defeated? For the US • Air coverage : 300 anti-sub planes • “Black Out” at night • Interlocking convoy hand-off • “Hunter-Killer Groups” Final reason: Sinking more U-Boats than Germany could build - Ratio of 3:1 (Merchants:U-Boats sank) - Escorts and aircraft each account for 50% Bottom Line: War on supply became too costly for Germans

  44. Navy’s Other Roles Troop Transport

  45. Historical Context • Oct 1940: Germany attacks USSR • Dec 1941: US enters war (joins Britain & USSR) * Allied Quandary: How to defeat Germany?

  46. Europe in 1942 Where would you begin?

  47. Europe in 1942 Close in from all sides

  48. Conflicting Plans • Soviets want western front • Take pressure off them • British want to start in Africa • Avoid catastrophic defeat and stalemate of WWI • US “Germany-First” Plan • Planners fear starting in Africa will delay western invasion until 1944 and USSR will not last until then • Planners also want more time to build and train • Amphibious landing vehicles *What do we do?