World War II American History II
World War IIUp to and including 1939 • Treaty of Versailles • Punishes Germany with reparations, extreme poverty causes resentment to Great Britain and France. Opens the door for a radical leader. Hitler = totalitarian. • Uses Jews as scapegoat for all of Germany’s woes. Social Democrats in power prior to Hitler composed of many Jews, and blamed for Germany’s conditions.
Aggression: Mussolini and Hitler • Italy-expands into Albania and Ethiopia, already possesses Libya, Eritrea, and Somaliland, Sardinia, Sicily • Germany- Saar (1935)Rhineland(1936) Sudetenland(1938), Austria(1938), Czechoslovakia(1939) and Poland(1939)
Japanese Aggression: Hirohito • In September of 1931, Japan invades and takes over Manchuria, in northern China. • The move was a violation of the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 (signed by Japan) • Despite cries of protest from China, the League of Nations accepted Japan’s reasoning of self-defense for the aggression. • US reaction- ends arms agreement • Japanese look at end of pact as threat to national security….OIL involved.
India Brazil THE ALLIED POWERS
We are not looking to fight! US and Isolationism • Isolationism-remaining out of foreign affairs. • Patch up relations with Latin America • Tydings-McDuffie Act gives independence to Phillipines (to not upset JP) • Neutrality Act of 1936 -stops sending arms to nations at war • US refuses to join the World Court in the League of Nations • Neutrality Act of 1937 -changes arms sales to “cash and carry”
“They’ll never act. They’ll just protest. And they will always be too late.” When cautioned not to anger European powers, Hitler responded: Sadly, Hitler was right. Not only Europe, but the world responded much to late to the aggression and violence of Hitler. The “isolationist” and “neutral” attitude of the world led to the deaths of millions and a full scale world war that may have been prevented.
The Painful Lesson • Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany meet in Munich on September 28, 1938. • Hitler has been aggressive in taking land west of Germany • GB and FR try to appease Hitler by agreeing to the dismembering of democratic Czechoslovakia, in hopes that Hitler would cease. • “agreement” is a failure. • Hitler invades the “demilitarized” Czechoslovakia and promptly breaks Munich Pact • By the end of 1939 both Hitler and Mussolini had conquered more territory in Europe and made plans for further wars. • Becomes famous as the “Lesson of Munich”
Troubling Agreements • In order to continue on his quest to dominate Europe, Hitler knew he must avoid war with the Soviet Union. • Hitler and Stalin (Soviet Union) sign Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939 • GE gets western Poland (prevents 2-sided war) • SU gets eastern Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bessarabia (creates buffer against GE invasion) • What is the overwhelming consequence of European appeasement to both Hitler and Mussolini? Why does Russia sign this non-aggressive pact with Germany?
September 1st, 1939 Germany invades Poland officially beginning World War II • On September 1, 1939 Hitler launched a full-scale invasion of Poland. • Britain and France declared war on Germany and WWII had begun. • Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland into two zones. • One month later Germany invaded France
US reaction to Europe • FDR passes Neutrality Act of 1939- repealing arms embargo. • Neutrality becomes heavily debated in the United States.
World War II1940 German Victories • April 9, 1940- Germans ended their lull in fighting by taking over all of Denmark in a matter of HOURS! • May-June, 1940- Germany invaded and captured Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Although there was some resistance from British and French forces, they were no match for the Nazi army.
Britain Who’s Next?
Changing of the Guard • Britain now stood alone. Chamberlain resigned and Winston Churchill became prime minister. Churchill would have nothing to do with appeasement. He promised to stand up to German and Italian aggression no matter what the cost! • With a new prime minister acting in Britain, public opinion began to shift in the United States. The Congress allocated over $17 billion to Great Britain and made a deal with Britain to provide them with destroyers. What made Churchill different from other leaders around the world at this time?
A Third Term for Roosevelt • Americans were surprised that Roosevelt decided to run for a third term and break the tradition begun by George Washington. He gave two reasons for running again: experienced leadership and knowledge of European leaders. Although he faced opposition early on, he won the Democratic nomination and won the election with 54% of the popular vote. What are the possible negative outcomes of breaking such a long tradition? Do you think FDR should have run for a third term? Why or Why not?
World War II1941 • Speaking to the World • January 6, 1941-Four Freedoms Speech • FDR’s Four Freedoms to be guaranteed to the entire world. 1.Speech 2.Religion 3.Want 4.Fear
“…Since the beginning of our American history, we have been engaged in change -- in a perpetual peaceful revolution -- a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions -- without the concentration camp or the quick-lime in the ditch. The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society…”-FDR
End To Isolationism • Lend-Lease Act (1941)- This act allowed Roosevelt to desert “neutrality” to provide war materials to any country whose security he deemed vital to the defense of the US. • Roosevelt acted immediately to provide materials to Britain and Russia (Germany had attacked Russia by surprise in June 1941, breaking their non-aggression pact)
Supplies across the Atlantic • Getting Lend-Lease materials across the Atlantic proved to be a difficult task. German submarines or U-Boats sank many supply ships. • By July 1941, Roosevelt announced that US and British warships would accompany freight ships to help materials cross the ocean. At first Germany did not respond, but by October 1941 they had attacked two American destroyers.
Alliance with Britain • Although the US had not declared war on any nation, it moved steadily closer to siding with Britain. • Churchill and Roosevelt met in August 1941 and made a joint statement known as the Atlantic Charter. In this statement they agreed that neither nation would seek territorial gains and proposed that all aggressing dictators be disarmed. This dramatically changed a long lasting US foreign policy.
Convoys increased the merchant ships chances of surviving the ocean voyage
Embargo Against Japan Japan continued its aggression against China causing relations to erode with the US Japan joined Germany and Italy in an anti-Soviet treaty. Despite US warnings to stay out of Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) Japan took control of the Asian territory. • Japan wanted the US to stop sending aid to China, and restore trade with Japan. Diplomatic talks in November 1941 failed, and during the meetings, Japan planned an attack on the United States.
Pearl Harbor at a Glance • The surprise attack destroyed 18 warships, 188 aircraft and killed 2,403 servicemen • On December 7, 1941 at 7:55 AM, Japanese bombers attacked the US fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA MAY 7-8, 1942 Pacific Dominance • The Japanese, after Pearl Harbor, showed naval superiority by crushing enemy fleets and dominating islands of the South Pacific. The Battle of the Coral Sea positioned enemies out of sight from one another, the first battle of its kind in history. The island of Midway was crucial in the strategy of Japan providing a point from which to bomb Pearl Harbor, making the US base useless. • Because of advantageous decoding by the US, Japan suffered severe damage in the Battle of Midway. The United States navy finally turned the tide in the naval struggle in the war by sinking four of Japan’s best carriers and downing many aircraft. The US victory saved Midway, Samoa, and Fiji from Japanese control.
MIDWAY ISLAND MIDWAY UNDER ATTACK
USS Enterprise Aircraft carrier (not at Pearl Harbor during the attack)
MILITARY STRENGTH AT THE START OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFICNumbers do not include Allied military forces elsewhere in the world
Stepping stone to the Philippines • Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon islands, was crucial in allowing Allies access to the Philippines and eventually a Japanese invasion. • Hand to hand, jungle combat was a true test for US Marines who had lost the support of supply ships. • The 20,000 Marines finally defeated the Japanese in a hard fought battle in February 1943, and effectively halted the Japanese island advancements.
North Africa • November 8th- Operation Torch was the name given to a large allied operation landing in North Africa to follow up the British hold on Axis troops in Egypt. • General Patton led the allies across the northern coast of Africa to support the fight against the fierce General Erwin Rommel, the “desert fox.” • The eventual dismantling of Rommel’s Afrika Corps led the Vichy French to side with the Allies and sent a strong message to Hitler.
GERMAN GENERAL ROMMEL KNOWN AS THE “DESERT FOX” FOR HIS BRILLIANT GENERALSHIP IN NORTH AFRICA
What were the Japanese trying to accomplish by establishing Pacific dominance? What is the importance of halting Rommel in North Africa?
World War II1943 • "The defenders of the city used to say that the streets, avenues and parks near the Volga became slippery from blood, and that the Germans slipped down to their doom." • General Chuikov
Hitler’s Eastern Front • Though the early stages of World War II focused on Western Europe, Hitler had diverted his attention to Russia by 1941. The battle of Stalingrad was fought from August1942 to February of 1943. Against the advice of his generals, Hitler attacked the Russian city. • German armies surrounded the city and so the Russians were trapped and would remain so for several months. When reinforcements arrived for the Soviets, they surrounded the Germans and forced them to surrender. • The battle of Stalingrad not only destroyed much of the German army, but also ended their offensive in Russia and ultimately resulted in Germany’s defeat.