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USED OIL AND OIL FILTERS. CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING. WELCOME. INSTRUCTOR. Insert Instructor Name Here. OBJECTIVES. Define Used Oil. Discuss How Used Oil is Recycled. Discuss the Different Uses for Used Oil. Explain What Businesses Handle Used Oil.

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slide1

USED OIL AND OIL FILTERS

CUSTOMIZED ENVIRONMENTAL

TRAINING

WELCOME

slide2

INSTRUCTOR

Insert Instructor Name Here

slide3

OBJECTIVES

  • Define Used Oil.
  • Discuss How Used Oil is Recycled.
  • Discuss the Different Uses for Used Oil.
  • Explain What Businesses Handle Used Oil.
  • Discuss the Different Standards for Used Oil.
  • Explain How to Conserve Oil.
  • Discuss Records.
  • Recommend Inspection Items.
  • Discuss Use of Contractors.
slide4

GOALS

  • Understand the Definition of Used Oil.
  • Understand How Used Oil Can Be Recycled.
  • Be Familiar With the Different Uses for Used Oil.
  • Understand What Businesses Handle Used Oil.
  • Understand the Different Standards for Used Oil.
  • Understand the Importance of Conserving Oil and Some of the Ways to Conserve Oil.
  • Be Familiar With Required Records.
slide5

BACKGROUND

  • EPA estimates that of the 1.3 billion gallons of used oil generated annually, less than 60% is recycled.
  • One pint of oil can produce a slick of approximately 1 acre on the surface of water.
  • EPA estimates that the largest source of oil pollution fouling the nation’s waters comes from Do-It-Yourself oil changers.
  • Crankcase oil accounts for 40% of total oil pollution of the nations harbors and waterways.
slide6

LEARNERS

  • Supervisors
  • Facility Engineers
  • Maintenance Personnel
  • Department Managers
  • Building Occupants
  • Process Specialists
  • Environmental and Safety Committees
slide7

OVERVIEW

The goal of this course is to provide supervisors with the tools needed to manage used oil. It recommends practical, actions that can be carried out by facility management, maintenance personnel and building occupants. The course will help you to integrate good used oil management activities into your existing organization and identify which of your staff have the necessary skills to carry out those activities.

slide8

WHAT THIS COURSE DOES NOT DO

The course is not intended to provide information to start a used oil collection center or how to process or re-refine used oil. These specialties required training beyond the intended scope of this course. Where this expertise is needed, outside assistance should be solicited.

resource conservation and recovery act rcra
Congress passed the Used Oil Recycling Act (UORA) in 1980, requiring EPA to address the hazards posed by used oil, and develop a regulatory scheme to ensure proper management and disposal practices.

The provisions of the UORA were incorporated into both the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); however, used oil emerged as a separate issue apart from hazardous waste.

In developing regulations for used oil, EPA has tried to balance the RCRA mandate to protect human health and the environment with the RCRA mandate to conserve resources through used oil recycling.

RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT (RCRA)
federal regulations
Pertinent Regulations:

40 CFR Part 266, Subpart E. This used oil program that primarily regulates used oil recycled by being burned for energy recovery.

40 CFT Part 279. This regulation establishes standards for generators, transporters, transfer facilities, collection centers, processors and re-refiners, burners, and marketers. This rule also included provisions for cleanup in the case of a spill or release of used oil.

FEDERAL REGULATIONS
what is used oil
EPA's regulatory definition of used oil is as follows:

“Used oil is any oil that has been refined from crude oil or any synthetic oil that has been used and as a result of such use is contaminated by physical or chemical impurities.”

Simply put, used oil is exactly what its name implies -any petroleum-based or synthetic oil that has been used. During normal use, impurities such as dirt, metal scrapings, water, or chemicals can get mixed in with the oil, so that in time the oil no longer performs well.

Eventually, this used oil must be replaced with virgin or re-refined oil to do the job at hand.

WHAT IS USED OIL?
oil management standards
EPA's used oil management standards include a three-pronged approach to determine if a substance meets the definition of used oil.

Origin - Used oil must have been refined from crude oil or made from synthetic materials.

Excluded: Animal and vegetable oils are excluded.

2. Use - Oils used as lubricants, hydraulic fluids, heat transfer fluids, buoyants, and for other similar purposes are considered used oil.

Excluded: Unused oil such as bottom clean-out waste from virgin fuel oil storage tanks or virgin fuel oil recovered from a spill, some solvents, antifreeze and kerosene.

OIL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS
oil management standards1
3. Contaminants--the third criterion is based on whether or not the oil is contaminated with either physical or chemical impurities. In other words, to meet EPA's definition, used oil must become contaminated as a result of being used. This aspect of EPA's definition includes residues and contaminants generated from handling, storing, and processing used oil. Physical contaminants could include metal shavings, sawdust, or dirt. Chemical contaminants could include solvents, halogens, or saltwater.OIL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS
used oil is
Synthetic oil

Engine oil

Transmission fluid.

Refrigeration oil.

Compressor oils.

Metalworking fluids and oils.

Laminating oils.

Industrial hydraulic fluid.

Copper and aluminum wire drawing solution.

Electrical insulating oil.

Industrial process oils.

Oils used as buoyants.

This list does not include all types of used oil.

USED OIL IS:
used oil is not
Waste oil that is bottom clean-out waste from virgin fuel storage tanks, virgin fuel oil spill cleanups, or other oil wastes that have not actually been used.

Products such as antifreeze and kerosene.

Vegetable and animal oil, even when used as a lubricant.

Petroleum distillates used as solvents.

Oils that do not meet EPA's definition of used oil can still pose a threat to the environment when disposed of and could be subject to the RCRA regulations for hazardous waste management.

USED OIL IS NOT:
used oil is not1
Wastewater

Wastewaters contaminated with de minimis quantities of used oil are also excluded from the present requirements because these wastewaters are regulated by the Clean Water Act.

De minimis quantities of used oil are small spills, leaks, or drippings from pumps, machinery, pipes, and other similar equipment during normal operations, or when small amounts of oil are lost to the wastewater treatment system during washing or draining.

Any used oil that is recovered from wastewater, however, falls under full regulation as used oil.

USED OIL IS NOT:
used oil is not2
PCBs

Used oils that are contaminated with PCBs in concentration of 50 ppm or greater are subject to regulation under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and are not considered used oil, but must be handled at a PCB waste.

USED OIL IS NOT:
how is used oil recycled
Once oil has been used, it can be collected, recycled, and used over and over again.

Recycled used oil can sometimes be used again for the same job or can take on a completely different task.

Benefits of Recycling:

Clean Water

Saving A Resource

Saving Money

HOW IS USED OIL RECYCLED?
how is used oil recycled1
Reconditioned On Site

If a used oil needs only reconditioning it can often be done on site.

This involves removing impurities from the used oil and then using it again. This usually involves a system of filters.

While this form of recycling might not restore the oil to its original condition, it does prolong its life.

HOW IS USED OIL RECYCLED?
petroleum refining
Petroleum Refining

If used oil is sent to a refinery, it can be used in one of two ways.

It can be used as feedstock that ends up being re-refined oil or

It can be used as coker to produce gasoline and coke.

PETROLEUM REFINING
re refined oil
Re-refined involves treating used oil to remove impurities so that it can be used as a base stock for new lubricating oil.

Re-refining prolongs the life of the oil resource indefinitely.

This form of recycling is the preferred option because it closes the recycling loop by reusing the oil to make the same product that it was when it started out, and therefore uses less energy and less virgin oil.

One gallon of used motor oil will yield about 0.7 gallons of re-refined oil.

RE-REFINED OIL
processed and burned
Involves removing water and particulates so that used oil can be burned as fuel to generate heat or to power industrial operations.

This form of recycling is not as preferable as methods that reuse the material.

Eleven percent of used motor oil collected is used in specially designed space heaters in automotive bays and municipal garages across the nation.

This practice is not recommended for home use. The country's approximately 75,000 space heaters use about 113 million gallons of used oil per year.

PROCESSED AND BURNED
reprocessing
Reprocessing is the most common method of recycling used oil in the U.S. Each year processors treat approximately 750 million gallons of used oil.

Seventy-five percent of used oil is being reprocessed and marketed to:

43% asphalt plants;

14% industrial boilers (factories);

12% utility boilers (electric power plants for schools, homes, etc.);

12% steelmills;

5% cement/lime kilns;

5 % marine boilers (tankers or bunker fuel);

4% pulp and paper mills;

6% other.

REPROCESSING
recycling oil is good for the environment
Recycling Used Oil Is Good for the Environment and the Economy--Here's Proof:

Re-refining used oil takes only about one-third the energy of refining crude oil to lubricant quality.

It takes 42 gallons of crude oil, but only one gallon of used oil, to produce 2 quarts of new, high-quality lubricating oil.

One gallon of used oil processed for fuel contains about 140,000 British Thermal Units (BTUs) of energy.

RECYCLING OIL IS GOOD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
does my business handle used oil
Generators

Generators are businesses that handle used oil through commercial or industrial operations or from the maintenance of vehicles and equipment.

Generators are the largest segment of the used oil industry.

Examples of common generators are car repair shops, service stations, quick lube shops, government motor pools, grocery stores, metal working industries, and boat marinas.

Excluded: Farmers who produce less than an average of 25 gallons of used oil per month. Individual’s personal vehicles and equipment.

DOES MY BUSINESS HANDLE USED OIL?
collection centers
Used Oil Collection Centers:

Any site or facility that is registered, licensed, permitted, or recognized by a state, county, or municipal government to manage used oil and accept, aggregate, or store used oil collected from used oil generators.

The used oil generator must deliver the used oil in shipments of 55 gallons or less. Used oil collection centers may also accept used oil from household do-it-yourselfers.

Used Oil Aggregation Points

Any site or facility that accepts, aggregates, or stores used oil collected only from other used oil generation sites owned or operated by the owner or operator of the aggregation point.

COLLECTION CENTERS
transporters
Transporters are companies that pick up used oil from all sources and deliver it to re-refiners, processors, or burners. Transfer facilities include any structure or area where used oil is held for longer than 24 hours, but not longer than 35 days. Examples of transfer facilities are loading docks and parking areas.

Used oil transporters may consolidate or aggregate used oil for the purposes of transporting and may conduct incidental processing operations that occur during the normal course of transportation (e.g., separating water from used oil that has settled during the aggregation or transportation process). Transporters who otherwise produce used oil-derived products or make these products more amenable for production are considered used oil processors.

TRANSPORTERS
transporters1
Used oil transporters must not only notify EPA of their activities, but must also track their shipments and maintain compliance with the management standards of 40 CFR Part 279, Subpart D. These standards are similar to regulations for hazardous waste transporters in many respects, including a provision for used oil transfer facilities.TRANSPORTERS
processors
Re-refiners and processors are facilities that blend or remove impurities from used oil so that it can be burned for energy recovery or reused.

These operations include but are not limited to blending used oil with virgin petroleum products, blending used oils to meet fuel specification, filtration, simple distillation, chemical or physical separation, and re-refining.

Does not include generators processing used oil generated on-site for use on-site. If transporters or transfer facilities filter oil from oil-bearing transformers before returning it to its original use, they would not be subject to processing standards.

PROCESSORS
burners
EPA’s used oil program only regulates the burning of off-specification used oil.

Off-specification used oil fuel can only be burned in the following three types of devices:

Industrial furnaces

Boilers

Hazardous waste incinerators subject to regulation under Part 264/265, Subpart O.

Prohibits the burning of used oil in non-industrial boilers, including boilers located at single or multifamily residences; etc.

BURNERS
marketers
A used oil fuel marketer as any person who either

(1) directs a shipment of off-specification used oil from that facility to a used oil burner, or

(2) first claims that the used oil going to be burned for energy recovery meets the specification requirements.

Used oil marketers can be divided into two categories: those that market off-specification used oil and those that market oil that meets specification. For each category different regulations apply under 40 CFR Part 279, Subpart H.

MARKETERS
standards
What Standards Should My Business Follow?

EPA has developed required good housekeeping practices that you must follow. These required practices, are called "management standards."

The standards apply to all used oil handlers, regardless of the amount of the oil they handle. Although different used oil handlers may have specific requirements, the following requirements are common to all types of handlers. These requirements relate to storage, transporting, cleaning up leaks and spills, and record keeping.

STANDARDS
storing oil
There are no time limitations on storage of used oil; however, if it is stored greater than 1 year and there doesn’t appear to be any definite plan to remove the oil, it may be considered disposal.

Used oil should only be stored in tanks and containers that are not leaking, rusting, deteriorating, or having other defects.

Containers, aboveground tanks, and fill pipes for underground storage tanks (UST) of used oil should be marked with the words "Used Oil."

USTs that store used oil should also comply with the UST general operating requirements.

STORING OIL
storage
Never store used oil in anything other than tanks and storage containers. Used oil may also be stored in units that are permitted to store regulated hazardous waste.

Tanks and containers storing used oil do not need to be RCRA permitted, however, as long as they are labeled and in good condition.

Storage of used oil in lagoons, pits, or surface impoundments that are not permitted under RCRA is prohibited.

STORAGE
transporting
All shipments of used oil in quantities greater than 55 gallons are transported off-site only by transporters who have an EPA identification number.

Used oil generators may transport, in their own vehicles, up to 55 gallons of used oil, that is either generated on-site or collected from Do-It-Yourself (DIY) used oil generators, to a DIY used oil collection center, used oil collection center, or aggregation point (e.g., one that is licensed or recognized by a state or municipal government to manage used oil or solid waste).

A used oil generator is not required to obtain an EPA identification number for this off-site transportation activity.

TRANSPORTING
oil leaks and spills
Take steps to prevent leaks and spills. Keep machinery, equipment containers, and tanks in good working condition and be careful when transferring used oil. Have absorbent materials available on site.

If a spill or leak occurs, stop the oil from flowing at the source. If a leak from a container or tank can't be stopped, put the oil in another holding container or tank.

Contain spilled oil.

OIL LEAKS AND SPILLS
oil leaks and spills1
Clean up the oil and recycle the used oil as you would have before it was spilled. If recycling is not possible, you first must make sure the used oil is not a hazardous waste and dispose of it appropriately. All used cleanup materials, from rags to absorbent booms, that contain free-flowing used oil also must be handled according to the used oil management standards.

If you are a used oil handler, you should become familiar with these cleanup methods. They may also be part of a spill response action plan.

Remove, repair, or replace the defective tank or container immediately.

OIL LEAKS AND SPILLS
standards for burning
Off-specification used oil can only be burned for energy recovery in industrial and utility boilers, industrial furnaces, used oil-fired space heaters, and hazardous waste incinerators.

Used oil is considered to be off-specification if it has a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit, or contains more than the allowable levels of any of certain constituents:

- Arsenic 5 ppm maximum

- Cadmium 2 ppm maximum

- Chromium 10 ppm maximum

- Lead 100 ppm maximum

- Total Halogens 4,000 ppm maximum

STANDARDS FOR BURNING
standards for burning1
Used oil can be burned in oil fired space heaters if:

The heater burns only used oil generated on site or from a household "do it yourselfer,"

The heater has a maximum capacity of 0.5 million British thermal units per hour

The combustion gases are vented directly to the outside air.

Check with your Air Pollution Control District if there are any other restrictions.

STANDARDS FOR BURNING
standards for burning2
Burners of used oil that meets a certain set of quality standards called the used oil specifications are not regulated under the used oil management standards, as long as the used oil is burned in appropriate boilers, furnaces, or incinerators.

Know and understand your state regulations governing the management of used oil they might be stricter than EPA's.

Contact your state or local environmental agency to determine your best course of action.

STANDARDS FOR BURNING
blending
Blending used oil to meet specification is permitted, since EPA believes blended oil poses no greater hazard than dirty virgin fuel oil.

Used oil with over 1,000 ppm total halogens, however, may not be blended to lower the halogen level.

A used oil handler blending used oil for purposes of meeting specification would be subject to the processor and re-refiner regulations in 40 CFR Part 279, Subpart F.

BLENDING
mixing used oil and hazardous waste
Mixing Used Oil and Hazardous Waste

If used oil is contaminated with hazardous waste, manage it as a hazardous waste.

Hazardous waste disposal is a lengthy, costly, and strict regulatory process.

The only way to be sure your used oil does not become contaminated with hazardous waste is to store it separately from all solvents and chemicals and not to mix it with anything.

MIXING USED OIL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
mixing used oil and non hazardous waste
Mixing used oil with other non-hazardous wastes, such as wastewater or solvent, may make management of the mixture more complicated.

These mixtures are regulated under both the used oil regulations and solid waste regulations.

A receiving facility which accepts used oil for recycling may not have permits to accept other solid wastes.

Mixing used oil and other waste may make disposal of the mixture more difficult and more expensive.

MIXING USED OIL AND NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE
avoiding costly cleanups
How Can My Business Avoid Costly Cleanups?

Prevention of spills by installing good housekeeping practices is the best way to avoid costly cleanup.

Regular inspections and employee training will also minimize cleanup costs.

If a spill does occur, protect storm drains with spill absorbent mats.

Confine spills to concrete or other pavement.

For small spills, surround the spill with absorbent socks or absorbent material and then pick up and properly dispose.

AVOIDING COSTLY CLEANUPS
recommended cleanup practices
Recommended Cleanup Practices

EPA recommends, but does not require, the following cleanup practices for used oil handlers:

(1) maximize the recovery of used oil;

(2) minimize the generation of used oil sorbent waste by choosing reusable sorbent materials;

(3) use the spent sorbent materials to produce recycled

(4) buy sorbent materials with recycled content.

RECOMMENDED CLEANUP PRACTICES
recommended cleanup practices1
Extraction devices (e.g., centrifuges, wringers, and compactors) can be used to recover used oil from reusable sorbent materials. Sorbent pads can be reused between two and eight times depending on the viscosity of the used oil.

These technologies, while not required, can be used to reduce the number of sorbent pads ultimately sent for remanufacture, energy recovery, or disposal. The potential to reduce waste and save money (i.e., lower disposal costs for spent pads and lower per use cost of sorbent pads) by reusing and recycling sorbent pads can be substantial.

RECOMMENDED CLEANUP PRACTICES
recommended cleanup practices2
Managing Cleanup Materials

If you have used oil on rags or other sorbent materials from cleaning up a leak or spill, you should remove as much of the free-flowing oil as possible and manage the oil as you would have before it spilled.

Once the free-flowing used oil has been removed from these materials, they are not considered used oil and may be managed as solid waste as long as they do not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic.

RECOMMENDED CLEANUP PRACTICES
conserving oil
What Can My Business Do to Conserve Oil?

Minimize the amount of used oil you produce. Businesses can filter, separate, and recondition used oil to prolong its usable life.

Purchase re-refined used oil products instead of virgin oil products. Products that display the American Petroleum Institute (API) "starburst" meet the same high-quality specifications as virgin oil.

Practice safe management of used oil. Don't mix used oil with anything. Always store used oil in leak-proof containers that are in secure areas safely away from workers and the environment. Send used oil to a re-refiner whenever possible.

CONSERVING OIL
conserving oil1
Reducing the amount of used oil that you generate is an important pollution prevention (P2) measure.

Use longer lasting synthetic oils to minimize the amount of used oil and used oil filters generated.

Reduce the amount of virgin oil purchased by reconditioning and then reusing used oil.

Manage used oil safely. Do not mix it with other materials. Store the oil in leak proof containers and tanks in secure areas away from workers and the environment. Label all containers of used oil and other wastes to avoid inadvertent mixing.

Use reusable oil filters.

Recycle used oil filters.

CONSERVING OIL
dust suppressant
In the past, used oil has been used as a dust suppressant on roads. This practice is now prohibited except in a few states where the practice is tightly regulated to a few instances.DUST SUPPRESSANT
used oil filters
How Should My Business Manage Used Oil Filters?

The Filter Manufacturers' Council maintains a regulatory hotline and database to encourage the proper management of used oil filters. By calling the hotline at 800 99-FILTER, you can access the proper management requirements for your particular states. The database contains:

Overviews of federal and state regulations relevant to the management of oil filters.

Addresses and phone numbers of the regulatory agencies governing the management of used filters in each state.

A listing of companies, by state, that transport, process, and recycle used filters.

USED OIL FILTERS
used oil filters1
Non-terne plated used oil filters are not hazardous waste and can be disposed of as general refuse if they are properly drained. Terne is an alloy of tin and lead. Terne-plated filters may be hazardous waste because of their lead content.

Draining used oil from your filters can be performed using one of the following methods:

Puncturing the filter anti-drain back-valve contained in most automotive oil filters or the filter dome, and then hot draining; the anti-drain back-valve consists of a rubber flap that creates a vacuum to prevent oil from draining back into the engine

Hot draining and crushing

Dismantling and hot draining

USED OIL FILTERS
recordkeeping
EPA uses 12-digit identification (ID) numbers to track used oil. Transporters hauling used oil must have a valid EPA ID number, and generators, collection centers, and aggregation points must use transporters with EPA ID numbers for shipping used oil off site. If you need an ID number, contact your EPA regional office or your state director.(You also can call the RCRA Hotline for more information.)

Generators, collection centers, aggregation points, and any handler that transports used oil in shipments of less than 55 gallons do not need an ID number, but may need a state or local permit.

RECORDKEEPING
recordkeeping1
Used oil transporters, processors, burners, and marketers also must record each acceptance and delivery of used oil shipments. Records can take the form of a log, invoice, or other shipping document and must be maintained for three years. Re-refiners, processors, transfer facilities, and burners must have secondary containment systems (e.g., oil-impervious dike, berm, or retaining wall and a floor) so that oil can not reach the environment in the event of a leak or spill. EPA also encourages generators to use a secondary containment system to prevent used oil from contaminating the environment.RECORDKEEPING
recommended inspection items
Determine if used oil is generated and if it is off specifications or not.

Verify that used oil is not used for dust suppression.

Determine if used oil fuel is burned at your facility for energy recovery. If so, is it within specifications or is it off specifications.

If off specification used oil is burned, is it burned in an approved industrial furnace, boiler or hazardous waste incinerator?

RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
recommended inspection items1
5. Verify that used oil is not managed in surface impoundments or waste piles.

6. Verify that when a release is detected, the following is done:

- the release is stopped

- the released is contained (especially before entering storm water drains)

- the oil is cleaned up properly and the managed properly

- repairs and replacement of any leaking storage containers or tanks takes place prior to returning them to service.

RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
recommended inspection items2
7. Determine if used oil is used in oil-fired space heaters. If so, is the oil within specifications and is the combustion gases from the heater vented to the outside ambient air?

8. If more than 55 gallons of used oil is transported, does the transporter have an EPA ID number?

9. Does the used oil transporter have a tracking mechanism (e.g. logs, manifests, etc.)?

10. Verify that the used oil is not mixed with hazardous waste or solid waste.

RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
recommended inspection items3
11. Verify that used oil containers and tanks are not leaking, bulging, rusting, damaged or dented.

12. Verify that containers, above ground storage tanks and fill pipes used to transfer used oil are clearly marked with the phrase “Used Oil.”

RECOMMENDED INSPECTION ITEMS
slide59

TIPS FOR USING CONTRACTORS

  • Remember, You Control Your Facility or Area!
  • Review Procedures With Them Before Starting the Job!
  • Ensure They Are Properly Trained!
  • Determine Their Environmental Compliance Record!
  • Determine Who Is in Charge of Their People!
  • Determine How They Will Affect Your Facility’s Environmental Compliance!
slide60

ELEMENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL

USED OIL PROGRAM

  • DETAILED WRITTEN USED OIL INSPECTION GUIDELINES.
  • 2. DETAILED WRITTEN USED OIL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES.
  • 3. EXTENSIVE EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAMS
  • 4. PERIODIC REINFORCEMENT OF TRAINING
  • 5. SUFFICIENT DISCIPLINE REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION
  • 6. PERIODIC FOLLOW-UP
slide61

THE IMPORTANCE OF A

CLEAN ENVIRONMENT

“I would ask all of us to remember that protecting our environment is about protecting where we live and how we live. Let us join together to protect our health, our economy, and our communities -- so all of us and our children and our grandchildren can enjoy a healthy and a prosperous life.”

Carol Browner Former EPA Administrator