Chapter 10 chemical reactions
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Chapter 10: Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reactions. Defn – process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged - new substances are formed. Evidences of a chemical reaction. 1) gas production 2) light production 3) temperature change (endo/exothermic)

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Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Chapter 10: Chemical Reactions


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

  • Defn – process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged

    - new substances are formed


Evidences of a chemical reaction
Evidences of a chemical reaction

1) gas production

2) light production

3) temperature change (endo/exothermic)

4) precipitate formed (solid from 2 liquids)

5) permanent color change


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

  • Energy is stored in compounds as chemical potential energy due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

exothermic reaction

endothermic reaction


Word equation
Word Equation due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Defn – equation expressed in words

Iron + chlorine  iron (III) chloride


Formula equation
Formula Equation due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Defn – equation with chemical formulas

  • Coefficients – whole # placed in front of compound

    • Balances the number of atoms

2 Fe + 3 Cl2 2 FeCl3


Parts of a reaction
Parts Of A Reaction due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Symbols

heat added

(s)

solid

Δ

(l)

liquid

(g)

gas

(aq)

aqueous (dissolved in water)


Example
example due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Solid calcium carbonate reacts with a solution of hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous calcium chloride, gaseous carbon dioxide, and liquid water

+ HCl (aq)

CaCO3 (s)

CaCl2 (aq)

+ CO2 (g)

+ H2O (l)


Diatomic elements
Diatomic Elements due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Defn – 7 elements that NEVER occur as singular atoms (always paired with an the same or different element)

H2 O2 F2 Br2 I2 N2 Cl2

Ex: 2 HCl + K  2 KCl + H2


Balancing equations
Balancing Equations due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Number of reactant atoms on left of an element must equal number of product atoms on the right

  • Must obey law of conservation of mass


Rules for balancing equations
Rules for balancing equations due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

1) Only coefficientsare changed in balancing reactions

2) Never change subscript during balancing

3) Coefficients are placed in front of compound and multiplied across compound to get total # of atoms of each element


Helpful hints
Helpful Hints due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Balance hydrogen and oxygen last

  • Balance polyatomic ions as a group if present on both reactants and products


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Before due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

After

MgCl2 + NaOH  Mg(OH)2 + NaCl

1 Mg

1 Na

1 Mg

1 Na

2 Cl

1 OH

1 Cl

2 OH

MgCl2 + 2 NaOH  Mg(OH)2 + 2 NaCl

1 Mg

2 Na

1 Mg

2 Na

2 Cl

2 (OH)

2 Cl

2 (OH)


Sample problems
Sample Problems due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • sodium and chlorine combine to form sodium chloride

2

+

1

Cl2

2

NaCl

Na


Sample problems1
Sample Problems due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • sodium hydroxide and calcium bromide react to produce calcium hydroxide and sodium bromide

2

1

NaOH

+

CaBr2

1

Ca(OH)2

+

2

NaBr


Sample problems2
Sample Problems due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide produce calcium sulfate and aluminum hydroxide

1

3

Al2(SO4)3

+

Ca(OH)2

3

2

CaSO4

+

Al(OH)3


Classifying chemical reactions
Classifying Chemical Reactions due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Synthesis

  • Decomposition

  • Single replacement

  • Double Replacement

  • Combustion


Synthesis
Synthesis due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Defn – two or more substances react to form ONE product

    A + B  AB


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Hey baby let’s get jiggy. due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.


Synthesis1
Synthesis due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • reaction of two elements

2

3

2

___Al + ___Cl2

___AlCl3

Al3+

Cl1-


Decomposition
Decomposition due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • defn – one substance breaks down into two or more simpler products

AB  A + B


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Break yoself fool! due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.


Decomposition1
Decomposition due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Ex reaction

2

2

3

__ NaN3 (s) 

___ Na (s)

+ ___ N2 (g)

2

2

1

__ CaO (s) 

___ Ca (s)

+ ___ O2 (g)


Single replacement reactions
Single Replacement Reactions due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Defn – one element replaces another element in a compound to form new compound

A + BX 

AX + B


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

I’m gon’ dance with yo’ lady due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.


Reactivity series
Reactivity Series due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • metals

  • halogens

Li K Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Au

most active

least active

F Cl Br I

most active

least active


Examples
examples due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • aluminum + iron (III) oxide

Fe3+

O2-

Stronger?

2

1

2

1

+

Al

+

Fe2O3

Fe

Al2O3

Al3+

O2-


Examples1
examples due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • silver + copper (I) nitrate

Cu1+

NO31-

Stronger?

Ag

+

CuNO3

NO RXN


Examples2
examples due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • fluorine gas + sodium bromide

Stronger?

1

2

2

1

F2

+

NaBr

NaF

+

Br2

Na1+

F1-


Examples3
examples due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • chlorine gas + hydrogen fluoride

Stronger?

Cl2

+

HF

NO RXN


Double replacement
Double Replacement due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Defn – exchange of cations between two ionic compounds

A B + C D 

AD + CB

switch


3 possible products of double replacement rxns
3 possible products of double replacement rxns due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Precipitate

  • Gas

  • Water


Ex problem
Ex problem due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • lithium iodide and aqueous silver nitrate react

Li1+

I1-

Ag1+

NO31-

Li I

Ag I (s)

+

AgNO3

LiNO3

+


Combustion
Combustion due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • defn – compound reacts with O2

  • Hydrocarbon – cmpd w/ only carbon and hydrogen


Combustion1
Combustion due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • Combustion of hydrocarbons

    ALWAYS produces CO2 and H2O

CxHy + O2

CO2 + H2O


Ex problem1
Ex problem due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

  • show combustion of propane (C3H8) gas

1

C3H8

+

5

O2

3

CO2

+

4

H2O