Modern India and Pakistan
Jawarlal Nehru • 1st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964. • Advocated Industrialization. • Promoted “Green Revolution”. • Mixed Economy. • Nonaligned Movement
India’s “mixed economy” • Mixed Economy: refers to private & govt. ownership • Foreign aid and foreign investment are crucial. • Urban areas have high-tech companies. • Three quarters of the population are farmers living in small villages.
India’s “Green Revolution” • Introducing higher-yielding varieties of seeds in 1965. • Increased use of fertilizers & irrigation. • GOAL make India self-sufficient in food grains.
Indira Gandhi • Nehru’s daughter. • 1st women leader & Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984. • Continues Nehru’s policies. • Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. • Assassinated in 1984.
Rajiv Gandhi • Indira’s son. • Prime Minister of India, 1984-1989. • Some reform of economy and government. • Also faced rebellion. • Assassinated in 1991 by suicide bomber while campaigning.
Sonia Maino Gandhi • 1968 Italian Sonia • Maino married Rajiv • 1983 becomes an • Indiancitizen • 1984 is first lady when her husband, Rajiv Gandhi, succeeded his assassinated mother as Prime Minister.
Sonia Gandhi remains Roman Catholic, but follows Hindu and Indian traditions. • With her children, she scattered Rajiv's ashes in the Ganges.
After Rajiv's death Sonia shied away from the spotlight. In 1998, she agreed to start her own career as a “Gandhi” again and became an important political leader.
Sonia's son Rahul and daughter Priyanka have also become politically active.
“The Jewel turns down the crown!” • When her party won in the2004 elections, she was asked to be Prime Minister. • She decided not to accept the position.
Manmohan Singh • May 2004 he held up • a letterfrom India's president authorizing him • toform a newgovernment • asprime minister • India Swears in 13th • Prime Minister and • the first Sikh in the job Current Prime Minister of India
India’s economy today • World’s 3rd largest economy by GDP • (PPP) • World’s 9thlargest economy by GDP • (Nominal) • Fast growing economy one of the fastest growing economies in the world • Foreign investment boosts economy telecommunication and information technology • Top Business Sectors small car manufacturing, technology, and Bolywood
Problems in india today • Overpopulation 1 billion & climbing • Hindu-Muslim tensions India v Pakistan • Gender issues dowry killings • Caste bias discrimination against castes • Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons • Political assassinations
Ali Jinnah • 1st Leader (Governor-General) of independent Pakistan • Dangerous combination • Was not prepared to rule in 1948. • Strong Islamic fundamentalism. • Impoverished. • Pakistan divides in 1972 • W. Pakistan = Pakistan • E. Pakistan = Bangladesh
Division of Pakistan • Pakistan divides in 1972 • W. Pakistan = Pakistan • E. Pakistan = Bangladesh
Benazir Bhutto • First Woman Prime Minister of Pakistan, 1988 • Served two terms 1988-1990 1993 = faced corruption charges 1993-1996 • 2007 Returned to Pakistan to run for re-election but was assassinated
Nawaz Sharif • Nawaz Sharif • Ousted three times. • Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists. • Overthrown in bloodless military coup
Gen. PervezMusharaff • led bloodless coup d'état • ruled Pakistan as head of state 1999-2001 • ruled Pakistan as president 2001-2008 • Led a secular govt. • Anti-Islamic fundamentalist • U.S. ally in the • “War on Terror.” • resigned in 2008 • facing impeachment
Current Government • Form: Parliamentary Republic • Led by: Asif Ali Zardari • Closest ally is China • Maintains good relationship with Arab & Muslim world • Ally w/U.S. but, strained due to recent mistrust
Current Issues in Pakistan • Economic development semi-industrialized but rapidly developing • Political instability tribal and religious • Hindu-Muslim tensions w/India • Gender issues Muslim honor killings • Terrorism relationship w/U.S. strained • The Kashmirland dispute &nuclear weapons
India v. Pakistan: dangerous rivals
Indian Soldiers Patrol the India-Pakistan Border in Pura, the Winter Capital of the State of Jammu & Kashmir - 1998
A Pakistani Ranger at the Indian-Pakistani Joint Border Check Post in Wagha, India - 2001