Modern India www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/resource/newindia.htm
Modern India *Population: 1 billion (1,210,000,000). Will be larger than China’s by 2030. *Urban population: 26% *Population density: 701 persons/square mile (12 times more crowded than Minnesota.) *Life expectancy: 57 years
traveljournals.net New Delhi *Largest city: Mumbai 8.2 million people *Capital: New Delhi *World’s largest democracy. *Religions: 81.3% Hindu; 12% Muslim; 2.3% Christian; 1.9% Sikh; 2.5% Other (Jain, Parsis) *Ethnicity: 72% Indo- Aryan; 25% Dravidian; 3% other
Mumbai *1/3 the size of the United States *Per capita income: 2,600. (U.S.: $35,000) *Literacy: 60% (70% male; 48% female) *Independence day: August 15 (from Great Britain in 1947).
Indo-European languages *Language: English is the most important for communication. Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the population. There are 14 other official languages including Bengali, Telugu, and Urdu.
india-statews-union *Climate: Desert (in the northwest); temperate (north); tropical monsoon (south). *Environmental problems: desertification, air and water pollution, tap water is not potable throughout much of the country.
Major states of India from AD 600 to AD 1500.
Mughal Empire Babur The Mughal (Mongol) Empire ruled most of India from 1523 to 1857. A Turk, Babur, conquered much of India and established the Mughal (Mongol) dynasty. The Mughal rulers were Muslims. It was the first time that most of India was united in over 1,000 years.
Akbar Akbar (1556-1605), Babur’s grandson, supported religious toleration and extended the empire.
Shah Jahan Shah Jahan (reign: 1628- 1657) built the TajMahal as a tomb for his wife MumtazMahal.
Aurangzeb Aurangzeb (reign: 1658- 1707) promoted Islam as the official state religion. He revoked policies of toleration, which resulted in religious tensions and hostility.
Flag of the British East India Company In the 17th century, the British (English) East India Company obtained trading rights in India. In the 18th century it received permission to rule parts of the country.
Sepoy Rebellion Sepoy Rebellion of 1857: Sepoys were Indian troops serving as soldiers for the British East India Company. The British put down the rebellion and Great Britain established direct control over India.
eberhartglobls.com In the late 1800s, Indian nationalism increased. In 1885, the Indian National Congress formed. It sought Indian self-rule through peaceful means.
Mohandes Gandhi Mohandes Gandhi (1869- 1948) became a leader of the independence movement. He supported satyagraha (passive resistance) and civil disobedience as a means to gain independence.
Indian independence (1947) News.bbc.co.uk India was divided into two countries: India (for Hindus) and Pakistan (for Muslims). During the transition, over 500,000 were killed in fighting. Kashmir became a disputed area (it went to India but Pakistan claimed it).
Jawaharlal Nehru Ali Jinnah Jawaharlal Nehru became India’s first prime minister (ruled from 1947 to 1964). Ali Jinnah was the Pakistani independence leader and first political ruler. India and Pakistan have fought three major wars: 1948, 1965, and 1971.
loonelyplanet.com After India and Pakistan’s war in 1971, Bangladesh was formed (it had been East Pakistan).
Indira Gandhi Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) served as India’s prime minister from 1966 to 1974 and from 1980 to She faced a Sikh movement for more autonomy in Punjab; assassinated in 1984.
Rajiv Gandhi Rajiv Gandhi (Indira’s son). He faced ethnic and religious problems concerning Sri Lanka. That is, the Sinhalese (Buddhists) were fighting against Tamils (Hindus). He was assassinated in 1991.
Manmohan Singh Current prime minister of India is Manmohan Singh.
Pakistan Current president of Pakistan is AsifZardari. Pakistan has nuclear weapons. Faces problems with terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
Afghanistan connectin.com HamidKarzai Current president is Hamid Karzai. 1996-2003: Taliban ruled Afghanistan. Allowed Al-Qaeda to have terrorist training camps. Overthrown by Afghans supported by the U.S. and others.
Ethnic map of Afghanistan slolarnavigator.net Currently, the Afghan government with help from the United States and NATO is fighting against Taliban rebels.