14th Amendment • Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
The End of Reconstruction • Initial gains in black political representation • 17 African American Congressmen! • 1870s- violence and intimidation towards black voters • 1877 last federal troops withdrawn from Southern states- end of Reconstruction. • No more protection for black voters • 1890 on: black voters disenfranchised
Rise of Jim Crow Laws • Legal (mandated by law) segregation • Schools • Transportation (buses) • Restrooms • Drinking fountains • Restaurants • Military
Supreme Court • Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) • Man who was 1/8 African American tested segregation law on train • Court ruled that “separate but equal” was constitutionally acceptable.
Beginning of the end of Jim Crow • Brown vs Board of Education (1954) • Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson • Required school desegregation.