Reconstruction (1865-1876) Reconstruction (1865-1876 Ms. Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY with additional slides by various publishers and myself (Mr. Joel Cornwell)
Key Questions (Reconstruction) Key Questions (Reconstruction) 1. How do webring the Southback into the Union? 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South after itsdestruction during the war? 3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
Wartime Reconstruction Wartime Reconstruction
President Lincoln’s Plan President Lincoln’s Plan • 10% Plan • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) • Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. • He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. • When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
President Lincoln’s Plan President Lincoln’s Plan • 1864 - “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR • “loyal assemblies” • They were weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). • Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. • Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. SenatorBenjaminWade(R-OH) CongressmanHenryW. Davis(R-MD)
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • “Iron-Clad” Oath. • “State Suicide” Theory [MA Senator Charles Sumner] • “Conquered Provinces” Position[PA Congressman Thaddeus Stevens] PocketVeto PresidentLincoln Wade-DavisBill
Jeff Davis Under Arrest Jeff Davis Under Arrest
13th Amendment 13th Amendment • Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. • Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. • Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
Freedmen’s Bureau School Freedmen’s Bureau School
Reconstruction Plans Chapter 5, Section 1 Lincoln’s plan Johnson’s plan • Each state could create a new constitution without Lincoln’s 10 percent allegiance requirement. • States had to void secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate the Confederate debt. • Although it officially denied pardons to all Confederate leaders, Johnson often issued pardons to those who asked him personally. • Denied pardons to officers and anyone who had killed African American war prisoners. • Permitted each state to create a new constitution after 10 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance. • Offered pardons to Southerners who swore allegiance. • States could then hold elections and rejoin the Union.
As southern states were restored to the Union, they began to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned. Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations. Black Codes
Presidential Reconstruction Presidential Reconstruction
President Andrew Johnson President Andrew Johnson • Jacksonian Democrat. • Anti-Aristocrat. • White Supremacist. • Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally left the Union. Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) • Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson) • In new constitutions, they must accept minimumconditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts. • Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. EFFECTS? 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
Growing Northern Alarm! Growing Northern Alarm • Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. • Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. • Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES
Slavery is Dead? Slavery is Dead?
Black Codes • Purpose: • Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. • Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race relations. • Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers[tenant farmers].
Congress Breaks with the President • Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates. • Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. • February, 1866 - Presidentvetoed the Freedmen’sBureau bill. • March, 1866 Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. • Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes - 1st in U. S. history!!
Johnson the Martyr / Samson If my blood is to be shed because I vindicate the Union and the preservation of this government in its original purity and character, let it be shed; let an altar to the Union be erected, and then, if it is necessary, take me and lay me upon it, and the blood that now warms and animates my existence shall be poured out as a fit libation to the Union. (February 1866)
Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction
14th Amendment • Ratified in July, 1868. • Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. • Insure against neo-Confederate political power. • Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” The 1866 Midterm-Election • A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. • Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan. • Republicanswon a 3-1majority in both houses and gained control of every northern state.
Radical Plan for Readmission • Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision. • Required new state constitutions, includingblack suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments. • In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 • Military Reconstruction Act • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts. • Command of the Army Act • The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. • Tenure of Office Act • The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.
The Tenure of Office Act • Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government. • Question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton
President Johnson’s Impeachment • Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. • Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. • The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
The Senate Trial • 11 week trial. • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
The Civil Rights Act Republicans in Congress blamed President Johnson for the southern Democrats’ return to Congress. To put an end to Johnson’s Reconstruction, the Congress tried to bypass the President by making amendments to the Constitution. In early 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act which outlawed the black codes. Johnson vetoed the measure, but Congress overrode the President’s veto. The Fourteenth Amendment Congress decided to build equal rights into the Constitution. In June 1866, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which states: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States…are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges… of citizens of the United States… nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law …” The Fourteenth Amendment and the Civil Rights Act
The congressional Republicans who drafted the Fourteenth Amendment consisted of two major groups. One group was the Radical Republicans. Radicals were small in number but increasingly influential. Most Republicans, however, saw themselves as moderates. In politics, a moderate is someone who supports the mainstream views of the party, not the more extreme positions. Moderates and Radicals both opposed Johnson’s Reconstruction policies, opposed the spread of the black codes, and favored the expansion of the Republican Party in the South. Moderates were not in favor of the Radicals’ goal of granting African Americans their civil rights, or many of the personal liberties guaranteed by law, such as voting rights and equal treatment. President Johnson continued to oppose equal rights for African Americans. Northern voters responded by sweeping Radical Republicans into Congress. Radical Reconstruction
Calling for “reform not revenge,” Radicals in Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867. These were its key provisions: 1. Southern states would be under military rule by northern generals. 2. Southern states would have to create new state constitutions. 3. States would be required to give the vote to all qualified male voters (including African Americans). 4. Supporters of the Confederacy were temporarily barred from voting. 5. Southern states were required to guarantee equal rights to all citizens. 6. All states were required to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. In 1868, President Johnson was impeached– charged with wrongdoing in the office–by the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives. The Senate tried President Johnson for “high crimes and misdemeanors,” but Johnson escaped removal from office by one vote. Johnson served the remaining months of his term with no mandate and no real power. In the following election, he was defeated by Ulysses S. Grant. The Reconstruction Act of 1867
Actions in Congress early in 1867 Extension of suffrage in the District of Columbia Requirement that new Congress convene Command of the Army Act Tenure of Office Act Military Reconstruction Act Key provisions for black suffrage and the Fourteenth Amendment Tennessee exempted Military districts III. Congressional Reconstruction triumphant
Later Reconstruction Acts to plug loopholes Constitutional issues and the Supreme Court Congress limits the Supreme Court Texas v. White Effort to remove Johnson Impeachment Johnson’s actions Failure of first effort to impeach Violation of Tenure of Office Act Articles of impeachment III. Congressional Reconstruction triumphant (con’t)
Trial Arguments Acquittal Role of Edmund Ross Ramifications Crippled presidency Johnson’s loss in 1868 Radicals Morale damaged Radical Reconstruction began III. Congressional Reconstruction triumphant (con’t)
Radical rule in the South Readmission of southern states Duration of Radical control Role of the Union League prior to Reconstruction III. Congressional Reconstruction triumphant (con’t)
The Grant Administration (1868-1876)
Waving the Bloody Shirt! Republican “Southern Strategy”