AP US Unit 8:Reconstruction, the New South, and the Grant Administration January 4-7, 2010 Test on Unit 7 and Unit 8 on Monday January 10, 2010
Main Questions for Unit 8 • How would the south be rebuilt? • How would the liberated blacks fare as free men and women? • How would the Southern States be reintegrated into the Union? • Who would direct the process of Reconstruction – Southern states, Congress, or the president?
Day 1 Early Reconstruction Chapter 23 pages 487-497 Documents 1-3
Effects of the Civil War on the South • End of an age (Antebellum is over) • Socially and Economically broken • Cities burned • Railroad tracks destroyed • Banks failed from inflation • Factories dismantled • Agriculture damaged • took until 1870 to produce the cotton crop of 1860 and much of this came from new farms in the SW
What was Freedom? • The Union army brought freedom, but it often left when they did • Different reactions: loyalty to masters and violence as well
What was Freedom? • When freedom finally came: • Many left to test freedom or find family • Exodusters were an example of whole communities that left looking for opportunity • Church became the focal point of the black community • Education and literacy became very important • needed black teachers…built colleges to train black teachers or accepted northern, white teachers
13th Amendment • Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau • Was supposed to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to freedmen and white refugees • Taught 200,000 blacks how to read • Often resented by the white south, though in some areas it conspired against the freedmen…
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes • “Plenty to eat and nothing to do.”
Lincoln’s 10% plan • Simple restoration of the CSA to the Union because Lincoln felt that they had never legally withdrawn • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. • When 10% of the voters in the 1860 election took an oath of allegiance to the US and pledged to abide by emancipation, a state government would be created and the state would re-enter the Union
Reaction to Lincoln’s 10% plan • Radical Republicans freaked out that white planters would take back over and blacks would be re-enslaved • Passed the Wade-Davis Bill through Congress in 1864 • Required a 50% oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation • Lincoln pocket-vetoed it (shelved it)
Reaction to Lincoln’s 10% plan • Republicans in Congress refused to seat delegates from LA in 1864 after that state had met the criteria of the 10% plan • Controversy revealed deep differences between Pres and Congress • Many in Congress believed that the CSA could only be readmitted as conquered provinces • Differences between Moderate Republicans (majority and like Lincoln) and Radical Republicans
President Andrew Johnson • Jacksonian Democrat. • Anti-Aristocrat. • White Supremacist. • Agreed with Lincolnthat states had neverlegally left the Union. Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!
Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction • Important to remember about Johnson: • Humble beginnings, southern and poor • Lincoln was shot and Johnson reinforced Lincoln’s 10% plan with a few changes: • Certain leading Confederates (and those with property over $20K) were disenfranchised and would have to petition for a personal pardon • State conventions had to repeal secession, repudiate CSA debts, and accept the 13th Amendment
Black Codes • Maintained a stable and subservient labor force • Were not free laborers – could not leave contracts without a system like slavery being put into place (working to pay off a fine for leaving…) • Blacks could not serve on a jury • Blacks could not rent or lease land • If a freed black was found without a job, they would have to work on a chain gang • No suffrage
Sharecropping • Having nothing but labor, many blacks turned to sharecropping, which benefited rich whites who had nothing but land
Republicans in Congress Angry with the South • Most of the delegates who arrived in Congress in December 1865 were former Confederate leaders • Republicans shut the door in their face • The freeing of blacks made them now count as 5/5 of a person • 12 more seat in Congress and 12 more presidential votes • Radical Republicans feared that the combination of Democrats in the South and North would dismantle the economic program Republicans had forced through during the war and would also perpetuate the Black Codes to virtually re-enslave the blacks
Day 2 – Congressional Reconstruction Chapter 23 pages 497-508 Documents 4-5
Problems with Johnson and Congress • Johnson began to veto all progressive bills put through congress by the Radical Republicans • Extending the Freedman’s Bureau • The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 • Congress overturned his veto on all of these
Congress Passes 14th Amendment • Made citizenship for freedmen a part of the Constitution: • Freedmen were citizens • States that denied the right to vote to freedmen would have their representation in Congress and the Electoral College reduced • Former Confederates who had previously been federal officeholders were now disqualified from holding federal and state office • The federal debt to pay off the war was guaranteed while the USA would not pay off the CSA’s debt
Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” “Swing round the circle” • Johnson stumped for the Congressional Candidates of the Democrats in 1866 • Made Johnson and Democrats look like idiots • Republicans won a 2/3 majority in the House and Senate
Leaders • Charles Sumner (now recovered) led the RR’s in the Senate • Thaddeus Stevens (PA) led the RR’s in the House • Radicals and Moderates had a veto proof majority, but had to work out differences between themselves • Radicals wanted federal control of the Southern states • Moderates wanted states rights but preservation of civil rights
Reconstruction Act (March 2, 1867) • South was divided into 5 military districts • Each district was commanded by a Union general and 20,000 Union troops were stationed in the South • Tens of thousands of former Confederates were temporarily disenfranchised • Means they couldn’t vote • To become a state again, states had to ratify the 14th Amendment and enfranchise black men (pass 15th Amendment) • Did NOT give freedmen land or an education
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 • Military Reconstruction Act • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
More about Congressional Reconstruction • Radical Republicans worried about freedmen suffrage and passed the 15th Amendment (passed 1869 and ratified 1870) • By 1870 the southern states had been readmitted, but political power turned back over to the Good Ole Boys once the federal military left
Black Suffrage • Freedmen participated in the state constitutional conventions • Between 1868-1876 there were 14 black Congressmen and 2 black senators (both of them from Mississippi) • Hiram Revels (Senator) was elected to Jefferson Davis’ former seat!
Blacks in Southern Politics • Core voters were black veterans. • Blacks were politically unprepared. • Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867. • The 15th Amendment guaranteedfederal voting.
15th Amendment • Ratified in 1870. • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. • The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. • Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
No Women’s Suffrage • Women had fought for emancipation, hoping that this would lead to rights for blacks and women…but no • Frederick Douglass had said that this was “the Negro’s hour”
Whites against whites • Scalawags – southern Republicans • Carpetbaggers – Yankees who traveled south to make a profit
Legislative Progress • Women were given property rights • Public schools were set up in the south as well as public works projects
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) • Group of whites that used anything from scare tactics to murder to prevent blacks from becoming leaders or even voting • Also used against scalawags and carpetbaggers
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) • Congress passed the Force Acts of 1870 and 1871 that allowed federal troops to go after the Klan, but they weren’t very effective • KKK maintained itself in the South • 14th and 15th amendments were not followed • grandfather clauses • literacy tests
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 • Crime for any individual to deny full &equal use of public conveyances andpublic places. • Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. • Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. • No new civil rights act was attemptedfor 75 years!
Once upon a time… • The Radical Republicans were tired of Johnson and wanted him out of office. So with their Congressional majority, they passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867, requiring that the president obtain the consent of Congress before removing any of his appointees • The point was to keep Edward M. Stanton, secretary of war and spy to the RR’s, in office but Johnson dismissed Stanton in 1868
And then…. • The House used their trap and voted 126 to 47 to impeach Johnson • But since the Senate has to vote on actually kicking someone out… • 7 Republican senators voted not guilty – missed 2/3 margin for impeachment by 1 vote • Opposition to abusing checks and balances • Successor would have been RR, president pro tempore of the Senate, Ben Wade • Johnson hinted that he would stop obstructing Republican policies if he could stay in office