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Reconstruction & Its Aftermath

Reconstruction & Its Aftermath

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Reconstruction & Its Aftermath

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  1. Reconstruction & Its Aftermath 1865 - 1896

  2. Reconstruction Plans Chapter 17 – Section 1

  3. Reconstruction Debate Although the Union was saved, the nation shook in its roots There were many difficult questions to answer: Should the slaveholding Southerners be punished or forgiven? What rights should be granted to the free African Americans? How could the nation be brought back together?

  4. Reconstruction Debate Most of the fighting took place in the south therefore towns, cities, plantations, roads, bridges, and railroads had been destroyed More than 258,000 Confederate soldiers had died while families had to rebuild their lives with very few resources Everyone agreed that these problems needed to be fixed but they could not agree on how to fix it This was known as the period of Reconstruction

  5. Lincoln’s Plan December 1863 he announced the 10 Percent Plan 10% of voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the state could form a new government and adopt a new constitution (banning slavery) Punishing the south would serve no useful purpose and only delay the healing process He also offered amnesty – a pardon – to all white southerners, except Confederate leaders, who swore loyalty to the Union He also supported granting the right to vote to A.A. that were educated or had served in the Union army However did did not force southerners to give these “white” rights to A.A.

  6. Rival Plan One group of Republicans in Congress considered the Lincoln Plan to be too mild; not harsh enough They said: Congress should control the Reconstruction policy, not the president They held a radical (extreme) viewpoint and were known as Radical Republicans A leading figure of that party was Thaddeus Stevens

  7. Wade-Davis Bill This was much harsher than Lincoln’s Plan A majority of white males in a state had to swear loyalty to the Union A state constitutional convention could be heldbut only white males who had never taken up arms against the Union could vote for delegates to this convention The convention had to adopt a new state constitution that abolished slavery

  8. Freedmen’s Bureau This was the other issue of Reconstruction – helping African Americans freed from slavery The Freedmen’s Bureau was created and helped distribute food and clothing, and provide medical services It also established schools and gave aid to new A.A institutions of higher learning They also helped people acquire land, offered free transportation, and helped obtain fair wages

  9. The Assassination… Night of April 14, 1864 President and Mrs. Lincoln attended the play “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. This was only 5 days after the surrender of Lee’s army John Wilkes Booth (an actor and Confederate sympathizer) enters the box without anyone seeing him

  10. The Assassination… Wilkes Booth shoots the president in the back of the head He the leaped to the stage and escaped during the chaos that unfolded Lincoln was carried to a nearby house but died a few hours later

  11. The Assassination… Booth fled on horseback to Virginia as he was being tracked by Union troops April 26: the troops cornered Booth in a barn near Port Royal, Virginia He refused to surrender and was shot to death

  12. New President Vice President Andrew Johnson took the post after Lincoln’s death He also revealed his own plan for Reconstruction He resented the slaveholders and wished to punish them Radical Republicans thought he’d create a very harsh plan which they could accept Johnson believes giving the states control over many decisions and he had no desire to help the African Americans

  13. “Restoration” He preferred to call the Reconstruction, a period of Restoration Under this plan: most southerners would be granted amnesty once they swore an oath of loyalty to the Union High-ranking Confederate officials and wealthy landowners could be pardoned He appointed governors to southern states and required them to hold elections for state constitutional conventions Only whites who had sworn loyalty and pardoned could be allowed to vote He opposed granting all freed A.A equal rights or letting them vote “white men alone should manage the south”

  14. The 13th Amendment Before states could reenter the Union they had to denounce slavery at their constitutional conventions They had to ratify the 13th Amendment End of 1865: all former Confederate states except Texas had formed new governments and were ready to rejoin the Union “Restoration” was almost complete

  15. Radicals in Control Chapter 17 – Section 2

  16. Southerners in Congress Southerners made their way to Congress as they sent their representatives there When they got to Washington DC many Republicans refused to seat them or acknowledge them They believed that these southerners had been let off loosely by President Johnson

  17. Black Codes Between 1865 & 1866: new Southern states passed a series of laws called the black codes They were aimed to control freed men and women and to enable plantation owners to exploit African American workers These laws were terrible; they arrested and fined any A.A who was unemployed Then forced him/her to work to pay off their fines

  18. Black Codes In other cases A.A were banned from owning or renting farms Whites were allowed to take orphaned A.A children as unpaid apprentices These Black Codes were reestablished slavery in disguise

  19. Challenging Black Codes 1866: the Freedmen’s Bureau was granted more power to set up special courts to prosecute individuals charged with violating A.A rights A.A were provided with a form of justice where they could serve on juries

  20. Civil Rights Act of 1866 It granted full citizenship to A.A and gave the federal government the power to intervene in state affairs to protect their rights It overturned Black Codes and also contradicted the Dred Scott decision

  21. Johnson’s Reaction Johnson vetoed both bills because he felt the federal government was overstepping its boundaries He also said that they were unconstitutional because they were passed by a Congress who did not include representatives from all the states

  22. Republican’s Reaction They enough votes to override (defeat) both vetoes set by Johnson The bills became law It also split Congress and the President possibly threatening the relationship in the future

  23. 14th Amendment In 1866: Congress passed a new amendment to make sure no one took the rights of A.A The 14th Amendment granted full citizenship to all individuals born in the US It also stated that no state could take away a citizen’s life, liberty and property “without due process” Everyone is entitled to “equal protection of the laws” Whoever refused to follow would lose their representatives in Congress

  24. Interpretation of the Amendment It did not include Natives Americans and it wouldn’t until 1924 It barred former Confederates from holding national or state office unless they were pardoned To be readmitted to the Union the states had to ratify the amendment Tennessee was the first and only to ratify until 1866

  25. Johnson’s Reaction to Am. Johnson reaction harshly towards the 14th Amendment He campaigned vigorously against Republican candidates He even urged all the state legislatures to reject it

  26. Republican Victory People were worried what effects this would have between the races There was fear that clashes would erupt such as in Memphis, TE & New Orleans, LA Eventually the Republicans gained control of the governments in every northern state This gave Congress the signal to take Reconstruction into its own hands

  27. Radical Reconstruction Reconstruction Act of 1867 called for the creation of new governments in the 10 southern states that did not ratify the 14th Am. These 10 states were divided into 5 districts and placed under military authority It guaranteed A.A males the right to vote in state elections and prevented former Confederate leaders from holding political office

  28. Radical Reconstruction The Second Reconstruction Act was passed a few weeks later and required the military commanders to being registering voters and to prepare for new state constitutional conventions This was introduced to get southern states to regain admission into the Union

  29. Readmission of States • 1868: seven states were readmitted • Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina • 1870: Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas were readmitted

  30. Challenging Johnson Congress had passed several laws to limit the powers of the president to prevent him from redirecting the military during their occupation of southern states Tenure of Office Act prohibited the president from removing government officials, including members of his own cabinet, without the Senate’s approval

  31. Impeachment Conflict became worse 1867: while Congress wasn’t in session, Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton without the Senate’s approval The Senate came back and refused to obey Johnson’s decision, so he removes Stanton from office anyway This violated the Tenure of Office Act

  32. Impeachment The House of Representatives were outraged so they voted to impeach – formally charge with wrongdoing – the president They accused him of misconduct The trial began in March 1868 and lasted almost 3 months

  33. The Case Johnson’s defenders claimed that the president was exercising his right to challenge laws They also argued that the impeachment was politically motivated and contrary to the spirit of the Constitution His accusers said that Congress should retain the supreme power to make the laws

  34. Verdict • Senators casted 2 votes and in both cases the result was 35 to 19 to convict the president • This was 1 vote short of 2/3 of the majority required to convict the president • Other Republicans casted a no vote because they believed a president should be removed from office

  35. Election of 1868 Republicans abandoned Johnson and chose General Ulysses S. Grant as their presidential candidate Democrats chose Horatio Seymour of New York Grant won with 214 of the 294 votes

  36. 15th Amendment This was the last and major piece of Reconstruction February 1869: Congress passed the 15th Amendment It prohibited the state and federal governments from denying the right to vote to any male citizen because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”

  37. The South During Reconstruction Chapter 17 – Section 3

  38. New Groups • Support for the Republican Part came from: • African Americans • White Southerners • White Settlers from the North

  39. African Americans They played in important role as voters and elected officials They did not control the government of any state but held important positions At least 16 A.A served in the H.o.R and 2 in the Senate

  40. Hiram Revels Senator and ordained minister He recruited A.A during the Civil War Started a school for freed A.A in St. Louis Served as chaplain of an A.A regiment in Mississippi Served a year in the Senate and declared that he received “fair treatment”

  41. Blanche K. Bruce Senator from Mississippi and former runaway slave Taught in a school for A.A in Missouri Entered politics and became a superintendent of schools Elected to the Senate and served for 6 years

  42. Scalawags These were southern whites who supported Republicans They were nonslaveholding farmers or business leaders who opposed secession They were called scalawags by Confederates It means “scoundrel” or “worthless rascal”

  43. Carpetbaggers These were northern whites who moved to the south after the war They supporter Republicans and served as leaders during the Reconstruction They were called carpetbaggers because when they moved they brought everything (all of their belongings) with them in cheap suitcases made of carpet fabris

  44. Carpetbaggers Most were greedy but some were not Most were former Union army soldiers or members of the Freedmen’s Bureau Others were reformers from the north such as lawyers, doctors, teachers

  45. Corruption Many southerners accused Reconstruction leaders as being corrupt – dishonest or illegal in action Some official made money illegally but this practice was not widespread Interestingly, there were less corrupt leaders in the south than in the north

  46. Resistance to Reconstruction Most southern whites opposed these efforts Plantation owners tried to maintain control over freed people in away way Most whites refused to rent land to A.A Store owners refused them credit Employers refused to hire them Some whites used fear to keep freedmen in line

  47. Ku Klux Klan Much violence against A.A were carried out by secret societies organized to prevent freed men from exercising their rights The KKK was the most terrifying group who wore white sheets and hoods Their members launched “midnight rides” burning homes, churches, and schools They murdered more than 150 people over a 3 year period

  48. Action Against Violence Those against violence appealed to the government to do something about it Congress passed laws to try to stop the growing violence However most white southerners refused to testify against those who attacked A.A

  49. Improvements Education improved for both A.A and whites A.A saw education as a step to a better life and in many regions they created their own schools Northern women and free A.A came to teach in the south More than half the teachers in these schools in 1870 were A.A There were 4,000 schools with 200,000 students

  50. Public Schools 1870: Reconstruction governments began creating public school systems for both races which did not exist in the south before More than 50% of white children and about 40% of A.A children in the south were enrolled in public schools Missionary societies established academies such as Morehouse College & Atlanta University Schools were starting to be integrated – include both races