Political succession IN NIGERIA: CONCEPTS THAT TRAVEL MINION K. C. MORRISON PROFESSOR AND HEAD POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION SAN FRANCISCO, APRIL 2, 2010
Political succession One of the most important things modern democratic governments do Comparing Succession in Nigeria
NigeriaA Checkered Succession History REPUBLIC 1: PARLIAMENTARY FEDERALISM 1960-1966 ___________________________ Military Authoritarianism 1966 1966-1973 CIVIL WAR 1967-1970 1973-1979 _____________________________________ Republic II: PRESIDENTIALISM 1979-1983 ____________________________________ MILITARY AUTHORITARIANISM 1985 – 1998 ________________________________________ REPUBLIC III: PRESIDENTIALISM 1999 FORWARD
What is Political Succession • Succession is transition from one leader to another
Political Succession Occurs when A new principal leader exercises primary control over the personnel and policy apparatus Bush Bows Out to Obama
Why is Succession So difficult? It’s all about Power • Power corrupts • The tantalizing aura of power • Transition to what? • Power yields nothing
Democracy and SuccessionSuspicions and Reverence Leaders, while necessary, are inherently to be feared and distrusted Tyranny The voice of the People Legislative Primacy Regular Transitions Elections
Exercise TRACE AND COMPARE THE HISTORY OF SUCCESSION IN GREAT BRITAIN RUSSIA CHINA _______________ 1. SHOW HOW LONG THESE PROCESSES TOOK 2. ARE THESE PROCESSES COMPLETE? EXPLAIN 3. COMPARE THESE CASES TO NIGERIA
THE NIGERIAN THIRD REPUBLICAND SUCCESSION • OBASANJO SERVED TWO TERM LIMIT, 1999-2007 • OBASANGO HANDED OVER POWER TO YAR’ ADUA 2007
YAR ADUA DISABILITY • YAR ADUA FELLED BY ILLNESS LEAVING THE EXERCISE OF STATE POWER IN SUSPENSION • ADUA REFUSES TO HAND OVER POWER TO VP PER CONSTITUTION • LEGISLATURE APPOINTS VP GOOD LUCK JONATHAN ACTING PRESIDENT 2010
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION I Section 144 • (1) The President or Vice-President shall cease to hold office, if - (a) by a resolution passed by two-thirds majority of all the members of the executive council of the Federation it is declared that the President or Vice-President is incapable of discharging the functions of his office; and (b) the declaration is verified, after such medical examination as may be necessary, by a medical panel established under subsection (4) of this section in its report to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION II Section 145 "Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives a written declaration that he is proceeding on vacation or that he is otherwise unable to discharge the functions of his office, until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary such functions shall be discharged by the Vice-President as Acting President."
RISKS FOR NIGERIAA TRANSITIONAL DEMOCRACY POLITICAL CRISIS BORNE OF: COUP CULTURE ETHNIC STRIFE RELIGIOUS STRIFE ECONOMIC CRISIS ILLIBERAL DEMOCRACY LACK OF CONSOLIDATION
RETURN TO COMPARE SUCCESSION ISSUES IN OLDER DEMOCRACIES BUSH V GORE IN USA TONY BLAIR DEPARTURE IN UK PUTIN DEPARTURE IN RUSSIA
CONCLUSION AS ANCIENT WESTERN THEORISTS PREDICTED, SUCCESSION IS A GENERAL PROBLEM FOR GOVERNMENTS ROUTINE PROBLEM FOR STABLE MODERN GOVERNMENTS ARTICULATE BODY POLITIC EXAGGERATED PROBLEM FOR TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENTSILLIBERAL DEMOCRACIES NIGERIA OFFERS SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR COMPARING EXECUTIVE SUCCESSION