Political Geography • the way governments organize and administer space • Conflict • Cooperation
State • area organized into a political unit (defined borders) • ruled by an established government • Sovereignty (control) • permanent population.
Sovereignty • independence from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Microstates • Extremely small states (usually islands, many of which were former European colonies)
UN -- Creation • Created at end of World War II to serve the role of a facilitator for discussions regarding international problems.
UN-Mission • To promote international cooperation • address global economic problems • promote human rights • provide humanitarian relief.
UN-Members • Exceptions: Taiwan, Kosovo, and Vatican City
UN Security Council • Permanent Members: U.S., U.K., China, France, Russia
UN – Effective? • Must rely on individual countries to supply troops • Any one of the five permanent members can veto an operation • Must be neutral between warring factions
League of Nations • world’s first attempt at an international peacekeeping organization. • was never effective at peacekeeping • the U.S. never joined • fell apart in the 1930s.
Korea • Divided in half into two occupation zones by the United States and the former Soviet Union after they defeated Japan in World War II. • One ethnicity divided between 2 states • admitted to the United Nations as separate countries. • Progress toward reuniting Korea was halted by North Korea’s decision to build nuclear weapons.
China & Taiwan • Most countries consider them two states • China does not consider Taiwan to be a separate state but part of China. • Taiwan is now the most populous state not in the United Nations.
Western Sahara • Most African countries consider it a sovereign state. • Morocco now claims most of the territory and has built a wall around it to keep the rebels out. • The United Nations has tried but failed to reach a resolution in this situation.
Polar Regions • Only large landmass on Earth’s surface that is not part of a state. • Claim portions: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. • The United States, Russia, and other countries do not recognize the claims of any countries in Antarctica. • States may establish research stations there for scientific investigations, but no military activities are permitted.
Ancient • The state concept developed in the Middle East • Fertile crescent extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea had the first city-states
City States • a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside. • Walls • The countryside--defense against attack and food supply • One city may gain military dominance over the others and form an EMPRIE.
Medieval States • The Roman Empire was the largest unified political territory of the preindustrial times • Controlled most of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. • Collapsed in the fifth century. • Portions of the empire became estates • Kings emerged • Kings took on multiple estates that became the basis for modern countries.
Nation-States • a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity.
Self-Determination • the concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Nation-States in Europe • Many created by the breakup of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia during the 1990s. • Small ethnic groups were left out.
Nation State- Europe Examples • Denmark (99% of Danes live in Denmark) • Slovenia
Independent Nation-states in Former Soviet Republics • The Soviet Union consisted of 15 republics, based on its 15 largest ethnicities which are now 15 independent countries. • smaller ethnicities are now divided among these states.
Baltic States (Former USSR) • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania
European States (Former USSR) • Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine
Central Asian (Former USSR) • Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Caucasus (Former USSR) • Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia (not a peaceful area, lots of ethnic hatred)
Modern Day Russia- Multinational • Russia officially recognizes the existence of 39 nationalities, many of which are eager for independence.
Chechens in Russia • Independence movement: Chechens, a group of Muslims declared independence in 1991, but Russia ignored their declaration. • The Russians fought hard to retain control of the territory because it contains large petroleum deposits and they did not want other ethnicities to also try to break away.
Caucasus- Location • The Caucasus region is situated between the Black and Caspian seas and gets its name from the mountains that separate Azerbaijan and Georgia from Russia.
Caucasus- Issues • Every ethnicity in the Caucasus wants to carve out a sovereign nation-state, but none has fully achieved it, resulting in violence.
Azerbaijan • Muslim • Descend from Turks and Persians
Armenia • Christians • History of being massacred by the Turks
Georgia • Many ethnicities who want to break away • Oil in the area complicates the situation
Colony • a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent.
Colonialism • an attempt by one country to establish settlements and impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Imperialism • Control of a territory already occupied.
Colonial Powers • The United Kingdom • France
Remaining Colonies • Most current colonies are islands in the Caribbean Sea. • Puerto Rico (US) is most populous
Boundary • an invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory.
Frontier • a zone where no state exercises complete political control.
Physical Boundaries • deserts, mountains, and water
Cultural Boundaries • religious and language
Geometric Boundaries • straight lines
Aozau Strip • Geometric boundary between Libya and Chad • Libya seized the territory from 1973-1987 • Chad controls the strip post 1987, but Libya thinks they should have control of it.
Cyprus Green Line • divided between Turkish and Greek control
Compact States • the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. • efficient communication and transportation
Elongated • long and narrow shape • Poor communication and isolation
Prorupted State • has a large projecting extension • Could be used to access a resource, such as water
Perforated • A state that completely surrounds another one • Problems: dependence on, or interference from, the surrounding state