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Political Geography

Political Geography

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Political Geography

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  1. Political Geography

  2. Political Geography • the way governments organize and administer space • Conflict • Cooperation

  3. State • area organized into a political unit (defined borders) • ruled by an established government • Sovereignty (control) • permanent population.

  4. Sovereignty • independence from control of its internal affairs by other states.

  5. Microstates • Extremely small states (usually islands, many of which were former European colonies)

  6. UN -- Creation • Created at end of World War II to serve the role of a facilitator for discussions regarding international problems.

  7. UN-Mission • To promote international cooperation • address global economic problems • promote human rights • provide humanitarian relief.

  8. UN-Members • Exceptions: Taiwan, Kosovo, and Vatican City

  9. UN Security Council • Permanent Members: U.S., U.K., China, France, Russia

  10. UN – Effective? • Must rely on individual countries to supply troops • Any one of the five permanent members can veto an operation • Must be neutral between warring factions

  11. League of Nations • world’s first attempt at an international peacekeeping organization. • was never effective at peacekeeping • the U.S. never joined • fell apart in the 1930s.

  12. Korea • Divided in half into two occupation zones by the United States and the former Soviet Union after they defeated Japan in World War II. • One ethnicity divided between 2 states • admitted to the United Nations as separate countries. • Progress toward reuniting Korea was halted by North Korea’s decision to build nuclear weapons.

  13. China & Taiwan • Most countries consider them two states • China does not consider Taiwan to be a separate state but part of China. • Taiwan is now the most populous state not in the United Nations.

  14. Western Sahara • Most African countries consider it a sovereign state. • Morocco now claims most of the territory and has built a wall around it to keep the rebels out. • The United Nations has tried but failed to reach a resolution in this situation.

  15. Polar Regions • Only large landmass on Earth’s surface that is not part of a state. • Claim portions: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. • The United States, Russia, and other countries do not recognize the claims of any countries in Antarctica. • States may establish research stations there for scientific investigations, but no military activities are permitted.

  16. Ancient • The state concept developed in the Middle East • Fertile crescent extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea had the first city-states

  17. City States • a sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside. • Walls • The countryside--defense against attack and food supply • One city may gain military dominance over the others and form an EMPRIE.

  18. Medieval States • The Roman Empire was the largest unified political territory of the preindustrial times • Controlled most of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia. • Collapsed in the fifth century. • Portions of the empire became estates • Kings emerged • Kings took on multiple estates that became the basis for modern countries.

  19. Nation-States • a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity.

  20. Self-Determination • the concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

  21. Nation-States in Europe • Many created by the breakup of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia during the 1990s. • Small ethnic groups were left out.

  22. Nation State- Europe Examples • Denmark (99% of Danes live in Denmark) • Slovenia

  23. Independent Nation-states in Former Soviet Republics • The Soviet Union consisted of 15 republics, based on its 15 largest ethnicities which are now 15 independent countries. • smaller ethnicities are now divided among these states.

  24. Baltic States (Former USSR) • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania

  25. European States (Former USSR) • Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine

  26. Central Asian (Former USSR) • Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

  27. Caucasus (Former USSR) • Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia (not a peaceful area, lots of ethnic hatred)

  28. Modern Day Russia- Multinational • Russia officially recognizes the existence of 39 nationalities, many of which are eager for independence.

  29. Chechens in Russia • Independence movement: Chechens, a group of Muslims declared independence in 1991, but Russia ignored their declaration. • The Russians fought hard to retain control of the territory because it contains large petroleum deposits and they did not want other ethnicities to also try to break away.

  30. Caucasus- Location • The Caucasus region is situated between the Black and Caspian seas and gets its name from the mountains that separate Azerbaijan and Georgia from Russia.

  31. Caucasus- Issues • Every ethnicity in the Caucasus wants to carve out a sovereign nation-state, but none has fully achieved it, resulting in violence.

  32. Azerbaijan • Muslim • Descend from Turks and Persians

  33. Armenia • Christians • History of being massacred by the Turks

  34. Georgia • Many ethnicities who want to break away • Oil in the area complicates the situation

  35. Colony • a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent.

  36. Colonialism • an attempt by one country to establish settlements and impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.

  37. Imperialism • Control of a territory already occupied.

  38. Colonial Powers • The United Kingdom • France

  39. Remaining Colonies • Most current colonies are islands in the Caribbean Sea. • Puerto Rico (US) is most populous

  40. Boundary • an invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory.

  41. Frontier • a zone where no state exercises complete political control.

  42. Physical Boundaries • deserts, mountains, and water

  43. Cultural Boundaries • religious and language

  44. Geometric Boundaries • straight lines

  45. Aozau Strip • Geometric boundary between Libya and Chad • Libya seized the territory from 1973-1987 • Chad controls the strip post 1987, but Libya thinks they should have control of it.

  46. Cyprus Green Line • divided between Turkish and Greek control

  47. Compact States • the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. • efficient communication and transportation

  48. Elongated • long and narrow shape • Poor communication and isolation

  49. Prorupted State • has a large projecting extension • Could be used to access a resource, such as water

  50. Perforated • A state that completely surrounds another one • Problems: dependence on, or interference from, the surrounding state