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CHAPTER 7. Muscles and Joints. Muscles Overview. Muscles support and maintain body posture through a low level of contraction Skeletal muscles produce a substantial amount of heat when they contract. Types of Muscles. Skeletal Attaches to the bones of the skeleton Voluntary/striated

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chapter 7


Muscles and Joints

muscles overview
Muscles Overview
  • Muscles support and maintain body posture through a low level of contraction
  • Skeletal muscles produce a substantial amount of heat when they contract
types of muscles
Types of Muscles
  • Skeletal
    • Attaches to the bones of the skeleton
    • Voluntary/striated
    • Operates under conscious control
  • Smooth
    • Called visceral muscle
    • Involuntary/not striated
    • Not under conscious control
types of muscles1
Types of Muscles
  • Cardiac
    • Forms the wall of the heart
    • Involuntary
attachment of muscles
Attachment of Muscles
  • Tendon
    • Attaches muscles to bones
  • Point of origin
    • Point of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is less movable
  • Point of insertion
    • Point of attachment to the bone that it moves

True or False: Of the 3 types of muscle, cardiac is the only one that is voluntary.

muscles of the head and neck
Muscles of the Head and Neck
  • Buccinator
    • Located in fleshy part of cheek
  • Temporal
    • Located above and near the ear
  • Masseter
    • Located at the angle of the jaw
    • Raises the mandible and closes the jaw
muscles of the head and neck1
Muscles of the Head and Neck
  • Sternomastoid
    • Also called the sternocleidomastoid
    • Extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process
muscles of the upper extremities
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
  • Trapezius
    • Triangular-shaped muscle
    • Extends across the back of the shoulder
    • Covers back of neck
    • Inserts on clavicle and scapula
muscles of the upper extremities1
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
  • Latissimus dorsi
    • Originates from vertebrae of lower back
    • Crosses lower half of thoracic region
    • Passes between humerus and scapula
    • Inserts on anterior surface of humerus
    • Forms the posterior border of the armpit
muscles of the upper extremities2
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
  • Pectoralis major
    • Large, fan-shaped muscle
    • Crosses the upper part of the front chest
    • Originates from sternum
    • Crosses over to humerus
muscles of the upper extremities3
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
  • Deltoid
    • Covers the shoulder joint
    • Originates from clavicle and scapula
    • Inserts on lateral side of the humerus
muscles of the upper extremities4
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
  • Biceps brachii
    • Muscle has two heads
    • Originates from scapula
    • Inserts on the radius
muscles of the upper extremities5
Muscles of the Upper Extremities
  • Triceps brachii
    • Muscle has three heads
    • Originates from scapula and humerus
    • Inserts onto olecranon process of the ulna at the elbow

If you have a tension headache and the back of your neck feels like it is in a vice grip, which muscle is most likely responsible?

  • trapezius
  • sternocleidomastoid
  • biceps brachii
  • latissimus dorsi
muscles of the lower extremities
Muscles of the Lower Extremities
  • Gluteus maximus
    • Forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock
    • Originates from ilium and inserts in the femur
  • Gluteus medius
    • Located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle
    • Originates from posterior part of ilium
    • Inserts in greater trochanter of the femur
muscles of the lower extremities1
Muscles of the Lower Extremities
  • Quadriceps femoris
    • Form anterior part of the thigh
    • Help extend the thigh
  • Hamstring muscles
    • Located in posterior part of the thigh
    • Help flex leg on the thigh
    • Help extend the thigh
muscles of the lower extremities2
Muscles of the Lower Extremities
  • Gastrocnemius
    • Main muscle of the calf
    • Attaches to heel bone by way of Achilles tendon
    • Used to plantar flex foot and flex toes
  • Tibialis anterior
    • Positioned on the front of the leg
    • Used to dorsiflex foot and turn foot inward

A runner suddenly grabs the back of his or her leg in pain. Which muscle group was injured?

  • quadriceps femoris
  • gastrocnemius
  • hamstring
  • tibialis anterior
muscular dystrophy
Muscular Dystrophy
  • Pronounced
    • (MUSS-kew-lar DIS-troh-fee)
  • Defined
    • Group of genetically transmitted disorders
    • Characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration
    • No evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue
  • Pronounced
    • (pol-ee-my-oh-SIGH-tis)
  • Defined
    • Chronic, progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles
    • Characterized by muscle weakness and degeneration
    • Atrophy
rotator cuff tear
Rotator Cuff Tear
  • Pronounced
    • (ROH-tay-tor kuff TAIR)
  • Defined
    • Tear in muscles that form a “cuff” over upper end of arm
      • Rotator cuff helps to lift and rotate the arm
      • Also helps to hold head of humerus in place during abduction of arm

True or False: The term muscular dystrophy means development of bad muscle, while polymyositis means inflammation of many muscles.

diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures1
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Electromyography
    • Process of recording strength of contraction of a muscle when stimulated by electric current
  • Muscle biopsy
    • Extraction of a specimen of muscle tissue, through biopsy needle or incisional biopsy, for purpose of examining it under a microscope
joints overview
Joints Overview
  • Joint = articulation
    • Point at which two individual bones connect
    • Joints determine degree of movement
    • Movement ranges from free to limited
  • Suture = immovable joint
    • Purpose is to bind bones together
classification of joints structural
Classification of Joints (Structural)
  • Fibrous
    • Surfaces of bone fit closely together
    • Held together by fibrous connective tissue
    • Immovable joint
      • Example: suture between the skull bones
classification of joints structural2
Classification of Joints (Structural)
  • Cartilaginous
    • Bones are connected by cartilage
    • Limited movement joint
      • Example: Symphysis
        • Joint between the pubic bones of the pelvis
classification of joints structural4
Classification of Joints (Structural)
  • Synovial
    • Space between the bones = joint cavity
    • Joint cavity lined with synovial membrane
    • Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid
    • Bones are held together by ligaments
    • Free movement joint
      • Example = shoulder
classification of joints functional
Classification of Joints (Functional)
  • Hinge
    • Allows a back and forth type motion
      • Example: elbow
  • Ball-and-socket
    • Allows movement in many directions around a central point
      • Example: shoulder joint and hip joint

True or False: The cartilaginous joint between the 2 halves of the pelvis (symphysis) is vital for childbirth.


What enables our movable joints to move freely and without pain?

  • cartilage
  • fibrous tissue
  • connective tissue
  • synovial membrane
movements of joints
Movements of Joints
  • Flexion
    • Bending motion
    • Decreases angle between two bones
  • Extension
    • Straightening motion
    • Increases angle between two bones
movements of joints1
Movements of Joints
  • Abduction
    • Movement of a bone away from midline of the body
  • Adduction
    • Movement of a bone toward midline of the body
movements of joints2
Movements of Joints
  • Supination
    • Act of turning the palm up or forward
  • Pronation
    • Act of turning the palm down or backward
movements of joints3
Movements of Joints
  • Dorsiflexion
    • Narrows the angle between the leg and the top of the foot
    • Foot is bent backward, or upward, at the ankle
movements of joints4
Movements of Joints
  • Plantar flexion
    • Increases angle between the leg and the top of the foot
    • Foot is bent downward at the ankle
    • Toes pointing downward, as in ballet dancing
movements of joints5
Movements of Joints
  • Rotation
    • Turning of a bone on its own axis
  • Circumduction
    • Movement of an extremity around in a circular motion
    • Can be performed with ball-and-socket joints

When bodybuilders are showing off their muscles, what movement are they using?

  • extension
  • flexion
  • abduction
  • circumduction

True or False: When I turn my head, I am rotating vertebrae in my neck.

adhesive capsulitis
Adhesive Capsulitis
  • Pronounced
    • (add-HE-sive cap-sool-EYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • Shoulder condition characterized by a stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and pain
    • Also known as “frozen shoulder”
  • Pronounced
    • (ar-THRY-tis)
  • Defined
    • Inflammation of joints
ankylosing spondylitis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
  • Pronounced
    • (ang-kih-LOH-sing spon-dil-EYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • Type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column
    • Causes deformities of the spine
bunion hallux valgus
Bunion (Hallux Valgus)
  • Pronounced
    • (BUN-yun) (HAL-uks VAL-gus)
  • Defined
    • Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

The treatment for bunions is surgical removal of the bony overgrowth. If -ectomy is the element for surgical removal, what is the correct term?

  • buniectomy
  • bonyectomy
  • bunionectomy
  • ectomy
  • Pronounced
    • (diss-loh-KAY-shun)
  • Defined
    • Displacement of a bone from its normal location within a joint
    • Causes loss of function of the joint
  • Pronounced
    • (GANG-lee-on)
  • Defined
    • Cystic tumor developing on a tendon
    • Sometimes occurs on back of wrist
  • Pronounced
    • (GOWT)
  • Defined
    • Acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe
herniated disk
Herniated Disk
  • Pronounced
    • (HER-nee-ay-ted disk)
  • Defined
    • Rupture of the central portion of the vertebral disk through the disk wall and into the spinal canal
    • Also called a ruptured disk or a slipped disk
lyme disease
Lyme Disease
  • Pronounced
    • (LYME dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
    • Acute, recurrent inflammatory infection, transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick

True or False: A herniated disk is referring to one of the cushions between the vertebral bodies. If inter- means between, the term to describe it must be interdiskal.

  • Pronounced
    • (oss-tee-oh-ar-THRY-tis)
  • Defined
    • Most common form of arthritis
    • Results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees
    • Also known as degenerative joint disease
rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Pronounced
    • (ROO-mah-toyd ar-THRY-tis)
  • Defined
    • Chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body
    • Mainly the small peripheral joints
  • Pronounced
    • (SPRAYN)
  • Defined
    • Injury involving ligaments that surround and support a joint
    • Caused by a wrenching or twisting motion
systemic lupus erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Pronounced
    • (sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus er-ih-them-ah-TOH-sus)
  • Defined
    • Chronic, inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs
    • Characteristic “butterfly rash” appears on the face

True or False: The most common form of arthritis is bony arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis.

diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures3
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Arthrocentesis
    • Surgical puncture of a joint with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis
  • Arthrography
    • Process of X-raying the inside of a joint, after injecting the joint with a contrast medium
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures4
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Arthroplasty
    • Surgical repair of a joint
  • Arthroscopy
    • Visualization of the interior of a joint using an endoscope
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures5
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation (sed) rate
    • Blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures6
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Rheumatoid factor
    • Blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis

An MRI of the knee shows a possible meniscus tear. The doctor opts to look right into the joint with a scope. This is called an _________.

  • arthrotomy
  • arthrostomy
  • arthroplasty
  • arthroscopy