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Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860. In the first half of the 19 th century the United States was growing at a rapid rate. The population was moving west and the national economy was thriving. . Westward Movement. Conestoga Wagon.

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chapter 14 forging the national economy 1790 1860

Chapter 14: Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860

In the first half of the 19th century the United States was growing at a rapid rate. The population was moving west and the national economy was thriving.

westward movement
Westward Movement

Conestoga Wagon

  • The West offered opportunities and new questions
  • 1.) Native Americans being driven off their land
  • 2.) New land to replace soil exhausted by years of farming
  • 3.) War and embargo caused people to move
  • 4.) Transportation improved: roads, canals, RRs, and steamboats
  • 5.) Immigration by Europeans
population growth
Population Growth
  • Between 1800 and 1825 the population doubled
  • Between 1825 and 1850 it doubled again
  • High birthrate and immigration
  • By 1830s almost 1/3 of the population lived west of the Alleghenies
  • Ecological Imperialism: exploiting the bounty of the West
  • Growth of cities = unsanitary conditions
  • Roads: By the 1820s, roads connected most of the country’s major cities. National (Cumberland) Road stretched from MD to IL.
  • Interstate: Within more than one state
  • Intrastate: Within one state
  • Canals: The Erie Canal was constructed from 1817-1825 and linked the frontier to NYC
  • Boomtowns: Rochester, Buffalo, Lockport, Syracuse and Utica
  • Stimulated economic growth and soon more states built canals
  • Improved transportation meant lower food prices and more immigration
  • Robert Fulton’s Clermont. The World’s First Successful Steamboat
  • Steamboats: began in 1807, with the Clermont on the Hudson River
  • Makes transportation on the nation’s rivers faster and cheaper
  • Railroads: built in late 1820s, more rapid and reliable. Soon competing with canals.
  • Boomtowns: Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit and Chicago
  • From 1832 on that number of immigrants coming to the U.S. increased dramatically
  • 1830s-1850s nearly 4 million arrive in the U.S.
  • Most arrive in Boston, NYC, and Philadelphia
  • WHY?
  • 1.) Ocean transportation was improving – faster and cheaper
  • 2.) Reputation of U.S. for opportunity and freedom
  • 3.) Famines and revolutions in Europe
the irish
The Irish
  • Irish immigrants leaving for America, 1846
  • During this period (1840s and 1850s), roughly half of the immigrants came from Ireland
  • Potato famine!
  • Faced discrimination upon arrival in U.S. (Catholic, competition for jobs)
  • Eventually entered local politics
  • Joined Democratic Party
  • Organized fellow immigrants to join
the irish1
The Irish
  • “The Usual Irish Way of Doing Things”

By Thomas Nast

the germans
The Germans
  • Economic hardship and failed revolution (1848) caused Germans to seek refuge in the U.S.
  • Skilled as farmers and artisans
  • At first their political influence was limited, but later they became more active in public life
  • Strong supporters of education and anti-slavery
  • Native born Americans were alarmed by the influx of immigrants
  • Job competition
  • Catholic vs. Protestant
  • Weaken Anglo majority
  • This leads to sporadic rioting in big cities
  • The Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
  • American Party or Know Nothing Party
growth of industry
Growth of Industry
  • At the start of the 19th century, a manufacturing economy had barely begun. However, by midcentury, manufacturing had surpassed agriculture in value
  • By the end of the century, U.S. manufacturing was the world’s leader
  • A combination of factors led to this
growth of industry1
Growth of Industry
  • Mechanical Inventions: inventors looked to patent new machines that made work faster and easier
  • In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and during the War of 1812 he devised a system to make rifles out of interchangeable parts
growth of industry2
Growth of Industry
  • Factory system: first U.S. factory est. in 1791 thanks to Samuel Slater. He smuggled secrets from Britain for cotton-spinning machines
  • The Embargo Act, War of 1812 and tariffs helped stimulate the economy
  • New England leads the way with its water power and seaports
  • Banking and insurance businesses grow
growth of industry3
Growth of Industry

Textile Mill in Lowell, MA

  • Labor: Competition with lure of cheap land out West
  • Textile mills in Lowell, MA recruited young women
  • Child labor
  • Toward middle of the 19th century, immigrants were being widely employed
  • Unions: Trade or craft unions formed, shoemakers and weavers
  • Wanted to reduce workday, but there was much opposition
cotton and the south
Cotton and the South
  • Throughout the 19th century the main cash crop was cotton
  • Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin transformed the South
  • Slavery increased and land in AL and MS was used for growing cotton
  • Most of the cotton went overseas to Britain
market revolution
Market Revolution
  • Urbanization, industrialization, specialization on the farms and the birth of modern capitalism brought many changes
  • Farmer fed urban workers and urban worker provided mass produced goods for the farmers
  • Producer culture to consumer culture
  • Standard of living increased
  • New challenges and problems
  • As American society became more industrialized, work changed
  • Women were either in domestic service or teaching
  • Most working women were single, married stayed at home
  • Less arranged marriages, less children
  • Still lacked many rights (suffrage)
  • Cult of domesticity: women as household caretakers/moral leaders and educators
economic and social mobility
Economic and Social mobility
  • Gap between rich and poor grows
  • Social mobility did exist and opportunity was better than in Europe
  • Many felt that as the 19th century began, slavery would gradually disappear
  • Importation of slaves banned in 1808
  • Rapid growth of cotton industry increases the “need” for slaves
  • No clear answers
  • What do we do with western lands?