Green Economy What is the Green Economy? The “green economy” refers to economic sectors that are focused on environmental sustainability. The green economy seeks to address the interdependence of human economic development with the health of the natural ecosystem. Bahan kajian dalam MK. Ekonomi Sumberdaya Alam Disarikan oleh: Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS, PM PSLP-PDKLP-PPSUB
MANUSIA KHALIFAH DI MUKA BUMI ''Ingatlah ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada para Malaikat: ''Sesungguhnya Aku hendak menjadikan seorang khalifah di muka bumi.'' Mereka berkata: ''Mengapa Engkau hendak menjadikan (khalifah) di bumi itu orang yang akan membuat kerusakan padanya dan menumpahkan darah, padahal kami senantiasa bertasbih dengan memuji Engkau dan mensucikan Engkau?''. Tuhan berfirman: ''Sesungguhnya Aku mengetahui apa yang tidak kamu ketahui'‘ (Al-Baqarah:30)
EKONOMI HIJAU vs. EKONOMI HITAM ‘The Black economy’: pembangunan ekonomi yang bertumpu pd bahan bakar fosil seperti batubara, minyak bumi dan gas alam. “The green economy” bertumpu pd pengetahuan ekologi-ekonomidengan tujuan menyelaraskan hubungan ekonomi-manusia dengan ekosistem- alam serta MINIMUM dampak negatif akibat kegiatan ekonomi terhadap lingkungan
Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address : the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space www.arch.wsu.edu/.../sustain/cs-hecol.htm
ANALISIS EKOLOGI-EKONOMI • Fokus issue: • Intergenerational equity, • Irreversibility of environmental change, • Uncertainty of long-term outcomes, • Sustainable development www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/library/pubs/set.html
Nilai ekonomi dari natural-capital dan ecosystem-services sangat penting dalam ecological- economics. Ecological economists may begin by estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms. www.environment.gov.au/.../report/overview.html
Tujuan utama Ecological-Economics (EE) : Mengimplementasikan pemikiran dan praktek ekonomi ke dlm realita biofisik, seperti hukum termodinamika dan sistem biologis.
Sumbangan sumberdaya alam bagi kesejahteraan manusia : • the planetary endowment of scarce matter and energy, • the complex and biologically diverse ecosystems that provide goods and ecosystem services directly to human communities: • micro- and macro-climate regulation, • water recycling, • water purification, • storm water regulation, • waste absorption, • food and medicine production, • pollination, • protection from solar and cosmic radiation, • the view of a starry night sky, etc.
Jasa-jasa ekosistem Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems. Collectively, these benefits are known as ecosystem services and include products like clean drinking water and processes such as the decomposition of wastes.
Empat Kategori Jasa-jasa Ekosistem : • 1. Provisioning services • • food (including seafood and game), crops, wild foods, and spices • • water • • pharmaceuticals, biochemicals, and industrial products • • energy (hydropower, biomass fuels) • 2. Regulating services • • carbon sequestration and climate regulation • • waste decomposition and detoxification • • purification of water and • • crop pollination • pest and disease control • 3. Supporting services • • nutrient dispersal and cycling • • seed dispersal • Primary production • 4. Cultural services • • cultural, intellectual and spiritual inspiration • • recreational experiences (including ecotourism) • • scientific discovery
Enam Metode Utama dalam Valuasi Jasa-jasa Ekosistem : • Avoided cost • Services allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services (e.g. waste treatment by wetland habitats avoids health costs) • Replacement cost • Services could be replaced with man-made systems (e.g. restoration of the Catskill Watershed cost less than the construction of a water purification plant) • Factor income • Services provide for the enhancement of incomes (e.g. improved water quality increases the commercial take of a fishery and improves the income of fishers) • Travel cost • Service demand may require travel, whose costs can reflect the implied value of the service (e.g. value of ecotourism experience is at least what a visitor is willing to pay to get there) • Hedonic pricing • Service demand may be reflected in the prices people will pay for associated goods (e.g. coastal housing prices exceed that of inland homes) • Contingent valuation • Service demand may be elicited by posing hypothetical scenarios that involve some valuation of alternatives (e.g. visitors willing to pay for increased access to national parks)
Ekonomi Hijau melingkupi: • 1. Produksi green energy yng bertumpu pd renewable energy untuk menggantikan fossil fuels • 2. Konservasi energi menuju efficient energy use. • Ekonomi hijau dianggap mampu untuk: • 1. Mewujudkan green jobs, dan pertumbuhan ekonomi yang berkelanjutan , • 2. Meminimumkan pencemaran lingkungan, global warming, pengurasan sumberdaya alam , dan degradasi lingkungan.
“The green economy” mensyaratkan adanya campur tangan pemerintah untuk memotivasi dunia-usaha dan masyarakat berinvestasi dalam memproduksi “green-products dan green-services”. www.smashinggreen.com/tag/green-economy
Sektor-sektor Ekonomi Hijau yang Prospektif : 1. Renewable Energy Renewable energy includes solar, wind, geothermal, and wave energy as well as bio gas and fuel cells. 2. Green Building Construction has always been a big sector of any economy. Green buildings, whether commercial or residential, form a long term sustainable impact on the environment as they are cost and energy efficient. Green buildings deal with things like alternative energy paneling, waste management, earth friendly products, and water efficiency (during construction and after). 3. Clean Transportation Transportation not only affects the economy but our everyday lives. Clean transportation means less dependency on fuel for vehicles, trains etc. From hybrid and electric cars to public transportation – if it transports and sustains, it’s included in clean transportation sector. 4. Water Management Water is becoming a short resource day by day. Water recycling, rain water systems, water purification and storm water planning has made the water management sector an important one for a green economy. 5. Waste Management Waste management involves recycling of waste, salvaging, toxic remediation, sustainable/recyclable packaging etc. Any technology that deals with how to get rid of waste or how to use it for other purposes is part of the waste management sector. 6. Land – Soils Management Land may have no depreciation value, but it can still be destroyed. The green economy aims to make it profitable and sustainable through proper land management. It does that through organic agriculture, habitat restoration, conservation, forestry, reforestation and soil stabilization.
MENUJU EKONOMI-HIJAU: • by refocusing policies, investments and spending towards sectors: • Clean Technologies, • Sustainable Energy Management (SEM), • Sustainable Water Management (SWM), • Sustainable Transportation Management (STM), • Sustainable Waste Management (SWM), • Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) • Sustainable agriculture Management (SM) • Sustainable Forests Management (SFM)
TEKNOLOGI BERSIH Profits and Potential Clean technologies stand to provide significant relief to shortages in energy, water, and other natural resources, while providing a path for both developed and developing countries to address such pressing concerns as greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, resource scarcity, and air and water pollution. Clean technologies will engender a variety of social benefits, from reduced illness and infant mortality to citizens' improved ability to hold meaningful jobs and raise families. The success of clean technologies will depend nearly as much on government investments and policies as on companies' entrepreneurial and marketing skills.
GREEN JOB A green job are: "work in agricultural, manufacturing, research and development (R&D), administrative, and service activities that contribute(s) substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality.
robertsonlowstuter.wordpress.com/.../ Energy efficient designs, incorporation of recycled materials into the design process, or designing with disassembly in mind to make end-of-life recycling easier. Green-job includes jobs that help to : Protect ecosystems and biodiversity; Reduce energy, materials, and water consumption through high efficiency strategies; De-carbonize the economy; and Minimize or altogether avoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution. jongjava.com/.../565-membuat-pupuk-organik-cair
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Energi Hijau Green energy is the term used to describe sources of energy that are considered to be environmentally friendly and non-polluting, such as geothermal, wind, solar, and hydro. Sometimes nuclear power is also considered a green energy source. Green energy sources are often considered "green" because they are perceived to lower carbon emissions and create less pollution. Green energy is commonly thought of in the context of electricity generation. Renewable energy certificates (green certificates or green tags) have been one way for consumers and businesses to support green energy.
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Energi berkelanjutan : 1. Sumber energi yang renewable: biofuels, solar power, wind power, hydro power, wave power, geothermal power dan tidal power. 2. Teknologi yng mampu meningktkn energy efficiency. www.ricksquires.com/.../
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Efisiensi Energi Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. Insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing fluorescent lights and/or skylights instead of incandescent lights to attain the same level of illumination. Efficient energy use is achieved primarily by means of a more efficient technology or process rather than by changes in individual behavior.
Sustainable Energy Management (SEM) Renewable energy : Energi yang dihasilkan dari sumberdaya alam seperti radiasi-matahari, angin, air, hujan, pasang-surut, panas bumi, dan hayati……… ……. yang secara alamiah dapat diperbaharui
ENERGI AIR = Hydropower Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). Damless hydro systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without using a dam. Ocean energy describes all the technologies to harness energy from the ocean and the sea. This includes marine current power, ocean thermal energy conversion, and tidal power.
ENERGI SURYA = Solar energy Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
ENERGI SURYA = Solar energy Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
BAHAN BAKAR HAYATI = Biofuel Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification .
PANAS BUMI = Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in some places of the globe or from some meters in geothermal heat pump in all the places of the planet . It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
ENERGI ANGIN = Wind power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites.
ENERGI ANGIN = Wind power Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require large amounts of land to be used for wind turbines, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy. This number could also increase with higher altitude ground-based or airborne wind turbines. Wind power is renewable and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, such as carbon dioxide and methane.
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Green Transport Green transport is a category of sustainable transport which uses human power, animal power and renewable energy. Often the definition does not include public transport which relies on non-renewable energy. Green transport includes: Walking Cycling and some other types of human-powered transport Solar powered vehicles Wind powered vehicles
Sustainable Transport A sustainable transportation system as one that: Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations. Is Affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development. Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Green Vehicle A green vehicle is a vehicle that is considered to be more "environmentally friendly" than traditional all-petroleum internal combustion engine vehicles (APICEVs). This is accomplished by having a low dust to dust energy cost. • Energy efficiency • But car with similar production energy spendings can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures: • The most significant is by using alternative propulsion: • An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or, preferably, that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life (i.e. battery electric vehicle).
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) • Energy efficiency • But car with similar production energy spendings can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures: • The most significant is by using alternative propulsion: • An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or, preferably, that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life (i.e. battery electric vehicle).
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Benefits of green vehicle use Environmental Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases that are leading to climate change. In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2 emissions from road vehicles. Health Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. A 1998 report estimated that up to 24,000 people die prematurely each year in the UK as a direct result of air pollution. According to the World Health Organisation, up to 13,000 deaths per year among children (aged 0-4 years) across Europe are directly attributable to outdoor pollution.
Sustainable Transportation Management (STM) Cities can be made more sustainable by means of: Green Green roofs transport Sustainable urban drainage systems or SUDS Energy conservation Xeriscaping - garden and landscape design for water conservation Sustainable city A more sustainable city, or Eco-city, has fewer inputs (of energy, water, food etc) and fewer waste products (heat, air pollution, water pollution etc) than a less sustainable city. Ecopolis (city) An Ecopolis is a large city that follows ecological principles. The word ecopolis is a portmanteau created from ecology (interactions between living organisms and the environment) and polis (a city state).
Ruang Terbuka Hijau untuk membersihkan udara kota
Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING Green Building, also known as green construction or sustainable building: is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation. Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials, and reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal — the complete building life cycle.
The fundamental principles in green building : Siting and Structure Design Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Materials Efficiency, Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement, Operations and Maintenance Optimization, Waste and Toxics Reduction.
Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING A zero energy building (ZEB) or net zero energy building is a general term applied to a building with zero net energy consumption and zero carbon emissions annually. Zero energy buildings are autonomous from the energy grid supply - energy is produced on-site. This design principle is gaining considerable interest as renewable energy is a means to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Buildings use 40% of the total energy in the US and European Union.
Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING A building approaching zero energy use may be called a near-zero energy building or ultra-low energy house. Buildings that produce a surplus of energy during a portion of the year may be known as energy-plus buildings. An energy autarkic house is a building concept where the balance of the own energy consumption and production can be made on an hourly or even smaller basis. Energy autarkic houses can be taken off-the-grid.
ZERO-ENERGY BUILDING: ZEB Zero Energy Buildings are usually built with significant energy-saving features. The heating and cooling are often drastically lowered by using high-efficiency equipment, added insulation, high-efficiency windows, natural ventilation. In addition, free solar daylighting with skylites or solartubes can provide 100% of daytime illumination. Nighttime illumination is typically done with fluorescent and LED lighting that use 1/3 or less of the power of incandescent lights, without adding unwanted heat that incandescent lights do. Other techniques to reach net zero (dependent on climate) are Earth sheltered building principles, superinsulation walls using strawbale construction, and exterior landscaping for seasonal shading.
Sustainable Buildings Management (SBM) GREEN BUILDING Green building practices Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.
ARsitektur HIJAU In the broad context, sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. Heating, Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency The most important and cost effective element of an efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is a well insulated building. A more efficient building requires less heat generating or dissipating power, but may require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air.
ZEB advantages • Isolation for building owners from future energy price increases • Increased comfort due to more-uniform interior temperatures (this can be demonstrated with comparative isotherm maps) • Reduced requirement for energy austerity • Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy efficiency • Reduced total net monthly cost of living • Improved reliability - photovoltaic systems • Extra cost is minimized for new construction compared to an after-thought retrofit • Higher resale value as potential owners demand more ZEBs than available supply • The value of a ZEB building relative to similar conventional building should increase every time energy costs increase • Future legislative restrictions, and carbon emission taxes/ penalties may force expensive retrofits to inefficient buildings
Sustainable Water Management: SWM • SWM is based upon the principles , namely: • Freshwater is a finite and valuable resource that is essential to sustain life, the environment and development. • 2. The development and management of our water resources be based on a participatory approach, involving users, and policy makers at all levels. • Women play a central role in the provision, management and of water resources. • Water has an economic value and should therefore be seen as an economic good.
Water's vital role for the environment and humans is linked to five main functions : 1. Maintaining human health : clean water is essential for maintaining human health; 2. Maintaining environmental health: the health of aquatic ecosystems is essential for fish/seafood supply, is a major determinant of biodiversity, and provides for many other vital goods and services; 3. Supporting two production functions : a) biomass production, necessary for the supply of food, fuel wood and timber; and b) economic production, since industrial development has traditionally been "lubricated" by easy access to water; 4. Supporting two carrier functions : a) water plays an active role in diluting and transpiration wastes; and b) in the natural erosion and land processes of the global water cycle; 5. Psychological function, which makes water bodies, water views, fountains and so on fundamental components of human preferences and desires. Water also plays a role in many religions and cultural activities.
SUMBER AIR : HUJAN "Dan Yang menurunkan air dari langit menurut kadar (yang diperlukan) lalu Kami hidupkan dengan air itu negeri yang mati, seperti itulah kamu akan dikeluarkan (dari dalam kubur)." (Al Qur'an, 43:11) Diperkirakan dalam satu detik, sekitar 16 juta ton air menguap dari bumi. Angka ini menghasilkan 513 trilyun ton air per tahun. Angka ini ternyata sama dengan jumlah hujan yang jatuh ke bumi dalam satu tahun.
RAIN WATER Al A’raaf : 57. Dan Dialah yang meniupkan angin sebagai pembawa berita gembira sebelum kedatangan rahmat-Nya (hujan); hingga apabila angin itu telah membawa awan mendung, Kami halau ke suatu daerah yang tandus, lalu Kami turunkan hujan di daerah itu, maka Kami keluarkan dengan sebab hujan itu pelbagai macam buah-buahan. Seperti itulah Kami membangkitkan orang-orang yang telah mati, mudah-mudahan kamu mengambil pelajaran. Al Furqoon : 50. Dan sesungguhnya Kami telah mempergilirkan hujan itu diantara manusia supaya mereka mengambil pelajaran (dari padanya); maka kebanyakan manusia itu tidak mau kecuali mengingkari (nikmat).