Chapter 11 WORLD WAR I Section 1: The Road to War Section 2: Wilson and Neutrality Section 3: Americans Prepare for War Section 4: Americans “Over there” Section 5: Establishing Peace
Section 1: The Road to War OBJECTIVES • What were the main causes of World War I? • How did most of Europe become involved in the war? • Where was the early fighting in the war and what were the results?
Section 1: The Road to War Main Causes of World War I • Alliances – countries joined forces to strengthen their economies • Nationalism – the feeling that a specific nation, language, or culture is superior to all others • Imperialism – nations compete to gain territories and build overseas empires • Militarism – a policy of aggressive military preparedness • Anarchy – there was an absence of governments in the Balkans • Leadership – there was a lack of international leadership
SECTION 1 The Road to War Question: Where did early fighting in the war occur?
SECTION 1 BALTIC SEA NORTH SEA BLACK SEA The Road to War RUSSIA ROMANIA GERMANY BULGARIA AUSTRIA-HUNGARY SWITZERLAND OTTOMAN EMPIRE SERBIA FRANCE ITALY GREECE
Section 1: The Road to War Europe Becomes Involved in the War • Russia’s mobilization led other countries to fulfill their own alliance obligations. • In support of Austria-Hungary, Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, l914 and on France on August 3, 1914. • Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914 leading Britain into the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. • Eventually 30 nations would fight in WWI.
Section 1: The Road to War Early Fighting and Results of the War • On the western front, most fighting took place along a battle line that extended from Switzerland to the North Sea. • The Russians attacked the Central Powers on the eastern front, which extended from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea. • The result was that both the Central Powers and the Allied Powers realized that the war would not be a short one.
Section 2: Wilson and Neutrality OBJECTIVES • What was trench warfare like? • How did new weapons affect the fighting in World War I? • How did the United States try to remain neutral in the war, and what events forced the United States to enter the war?
Section 2: Wilson and Neutrality Characteristics of Trench Warfare Trench Warfare – the strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches • Ranged from simple holes to complex networks that were six to eight feet deep with rooms for sleeping and eating • Cold, wet, and dirty • Health problems and disease
Section 2: Wilson and Neutrality New Technology • New technology made the war even more dangerous. • Machine and other types of big guns launched deadly artillery shells and poison gas. • Tanks were used to support infantry attacks and were difficult to destroy. • Airplanes were used to gather information, shoot down enemy planes and fire on trenches.
Section 2: Wilson and Neutrality (continued) Neutrality and War • President Woodrow Wilson’s declaration of neutrality reflected the nation’s policy of isolationism. • Most Americans viewed the war as a European conflict. • U.S. neutrality did not prevent Americans from trading with the warring European nations. • The sinking of the Lusitania infuriated the American public.
Section 2: Wilson and Neutrality Neutrality and War • The German violation of the Sussex Pledge on February 1, 1917, led to America breaking diplomatic relations with Germany. • The Zimmerman Note led to an American war declaration on Germany on April 6, 1917. Zimmerman Note – telegram sent by Germany’s foreign minister to Mexico during World War I proposing an alliance between the two countries
Section 3: Americans Prepare for War OBJECTIVES • How did the U.S. government prepare the military for war? • What contributions did women and African Americans make to the war effort? • How did the war affect industry and labor?
Section 3: Americans Prepare for War Government Prepares for War • May 18, 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act. • Army built training camps to train soldiers for the war. Selective Service Act – required all men between the ages of 21-30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces
Section 3: Americans Prepare for War Contributions of Women and African Americans • Some 25,000 female volunteers served as nurses, signalers, typists, interpreters, translating calls and sending battle orders. • On the home front women filled important industrial jobs in factories. • Pressure from the NAACP led the military to create some combat units and one officer-training camp for African Americans.
Section 4: Americans “Over There” OBJECTIVES • What were the experiences of U.S. soldiers in World War I? • How did the final battles of the war progress? • Why did Germany finally agree to an armistice?
Section 4: Americans “Over There” U.S. Soldiers in WWI • U.S. troops served as individual units and were known as the American Expeditionary Force. • Doughboys trained in specially dug trenches and practiced with real shells and rifles and were trained for victory and not stalemate. doughboys – nickname for American soldiers in World War I
Section 4: Americans “Over There” The Final Battles • In the spring of 1918 Germany launched a series of attack to break the stalemate on the western front. • March 21, 1918 the Germans launched an attack on the Somme River that ended up costing the Germans 250,000 casualties. • In other battles, German advances were halted at northwestern France, the Marne, and the town of Chateau-Thierry; the turning point of the war had finally come.
Section 4: Americans “Over There” Reasons for An Armistice • German people and army were weary of war. • Civilians were without food or supplies and deaths from starvation were intense. • German soldiers rebelled and the Germans did not have enough soldiers to continue fighting.
Section 5: Establishing Peace OBJECTIVES • What were the human and economic costs of the war? • What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? • How did Americans respond to the Treaty of Versailles?
Section 5: Establishing Peace Human Cost of the War • Allies lost more than 5 million soldiers and 116,000 American troops died. • Central Powers lost about 3.4 million soldiers. • More than 20 million soldiers on both sides were wounded. • Thousands of civilians were wounded.
Section 5: Establishing Peace Economic Cost of the War • Economies of nations involved in the war were ruined • War destroyed the land itself • Cost of the war estimated at more the $145 billion for the Allies and $63 billion for the Central Powers • More than $30 billion in property destroyed and $1 billion on relief • War debts
Section 5: Establishing Peace Terms of the Treaty of Versailles • The treaty included some of the FourteenPoints such as self-determination. • People of some nations won the right to decide their own political situation. • New nations were formed and old ones were restored such as Czechoslovakia and Poland. Fourteen Points – President Woodrow Wilson’s plan for organizing post-World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars
Section 5: Establishing Peace America’s Response to the Treaty • Congress did not approve of the Treaty of Versailles. • Congress negotiated separate peace treaties with Austria, Germany, and Hungary. • U.S. never joined the League of Nations.