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Chapter 7. Cellular Structure & Function. Chapter 7 Vocabulary Word, Definition, Sentence, Picture (Worth 136 pts). active transport cell cell theory centriole chloroplast cilium cytoplasm cytoskeleton diffusion dynamic equilibrium Endocytosis endoplasmic reticulum

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Cellular Structure & Function

chapter 7 vocabulary word definition sentence picture worth 136 pts
Chapter 7 Vocabulary Word, Definition, Sentence, Picture (Worth 136 pts)

active transport


cell theory







dynamic equilibrium


endoplasmic reticulum

eukaryotic cell


facilitated diffusion


fluid mosaic model

Golgi apparatus

hypertonic solution

hypotonic solution

isotonic solution







phospholipid bilayer

plasma membrane

prokaryotic cell


selective permeability

transport protein


9 13 9 17 daily warm up
9/13—9/17 Daily Warm Up

What is the basic type of microscope used to view cells and processes such as mitosis and meiosis?

Compound Light Microscope

List the two types of cells. One type of cell has two sub-groups, name them as well.





9 13 9 17 daily warm up1
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up

What is a cell?

The basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms.

Hypothesize the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

Organelles separate the 2 from each other.

9 13 9 17 daily warm up2
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up

What are the 3 theories in the cell theory?

1. All living organisms are composed of 1 or more cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure in an organism.

3. Cells can only arise from pre-existing cells.

If you were trying to observe the water vacuoles in a plant cell, which microscope would you use?

Compound Light

9 13 9 17 daily warm up3
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up

Thursday no warm up

9 13 9 17 daily warm up4
9/13-9/17 Daily Warm Up

What is the theory that states that prokaryotic cells further developed eukaryotic cells?

Endosymbiotic theory

What are the names of the two electron microscopes? (Give abbreviations)

TEM-Transmission Electron Microscope

SEM-Scanning Electron Microscope

chapter 7 opening activity
Chapter 7 Opening Activity
  • Words you can use:
  • Animals
  • bacteria
  • chloroplasts
  • Eukaryotes
  • a large central vacuole
  • plants
  • plasma membrane
  • prokaryotes

All cells have a:

And are grouped into two broad categories:

Which are mainly:

Some contain yeast and algae

Which contains unique structures such as:

Cell walls

section 1
Section 1

Cell Discovery & Theory

chapter 7 opening activity1
Chapter 7 Opening Activity
  • Words you can use:
  • Animals
  • bacteria
  • chloroplasts
  • Eukaryotes
  • a large central vacuole
  • plants
  • plasma membrane
  • prokaryotes

All cells have a:

Plasma membrane

And are grouped into two broad categories:



Which are mainly:




Some contain yeast and algae

Which contains unique structures such as:

Cell walls


A large central vacuole

history of the cell theory
History of the Cell Theory
  • A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things.
  • The first to observe cells was Robert Hooke, who made a simple microscope, and looked at a piece of cork.
    • Cork= the dead cells of Oak bark
  • Later, Anton van Leeuwenhoek advanced Hooke’s findings and developed an even better microscope called a light microscope.
the cell theory
The Cell Theory

Observations from Schleiden, Schwann & Virchow summarized the theory of the cell.

1. All living organisms are composed of 1 or more cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure in an organism.

3. Cells can only arise from pre-existing cells.

microscope technology
Microscope Technology
  • Microscope technology paved the way to the development of the cell theory and the discovery of cells.
  • As we continue to grow in technology, so do the details in the images we see of cells.
    • As detail increases, so do the magnification and resolution on the microscope.

Compound Light Microscope

Electron Microscopes

Glass lenses

Uses visible light to produce a magnified image

Uses 2 lenses that can magnify 10x, therefore the total magnification would be 100.

Often dyes are used to see an image

Light limits the resolution of these images

  • Transmission Electron
    • Magnet beams
    • Can magnify 500,000x
    • Specimen can be living
    • Sliced thin
  • Scanning Electron
    • Produces a 3D image
    • Black & White image
    • Non-living
    • Stained w/heavy metals

Explain how the development and improvement of microscopes changed the study of living organisms.

With more sophisticated tools, scientists have been able to learn much more detail about the cell and its structures.

Compare & Contrast a compound light microscope and an electron microscope.

Light microscopes use visible light and glass lenses. Electron microscopes use beams of electrons and magnets, and can be used to view whole specimens.

basic cell types
Basic Cell Types
  • Cells differ based on the function they perform for the organism.
  • HOWEVER, all cells have at least one physical trait in common: their plasma membrane.
    • The plasma membrane helps control what enters and leaves the cell.
  • Cells have a variety of functions based on specific organelles found inside.
    • Most cells have genetic material that provides instructions for making substances that the cell needs. The genetic material is copied to the daughter cells (offspring of the cell).
  • There are two different types of cells:
    • Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic
differences b w the 2 types of cells
Differences b/w the 2 types of cells




Contains membrane bound organelles

Contains a nucleus


Does not contain membrane bound organelles

No nucleus


Differentiate the plasma membrane and the organelles.

The plasma membrane helps control what goes in and out of the cells. Organelles carry out specialized functions in the cell.

origin of cell diversity
Origin of Cell Diversity
  • According to the endosymbiotic theory:
    • Prokaryotic cells lived within eukaryotic cells.
    • Which means cells came from a simple prokaryotic cell composed of few organelle structures may have evolved further from the multi-cellular eukaryotic cell to have its own identity.
at the end of notes
At the end of NOTES…

Answer questions 1-7 (you DO NOT have to write out the question) on page 211.

Make sure you create 4 questions on the left side of your notes.

Write a summary for your notes…at least 5 sentences in length.

9 20 9 24 daily warm up
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up

What is an example of a prokaryotic cell?


What are the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.




9 20 9 24 daily warm up1
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up

Describe how the plasma membrane helps maintain homeostasis in the cell.

By controlling what enters & leaves the cell.

Explain how the inside of a cell remains separate from its environment.

The phospholipid bi-layer provides a barrier from the environment outside of the cell.

9 20 9 24 daily warm up2
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up

What do carbohydrates do in reference to the cell membrane?

Recognize foreign pathogens & transmits chemical signals.

(Without looking at the book or notes) List 5 organelles found in cells.




Golgi Apparatus


9 20 9 24 daily warm up3
9/20-9/24 Daily Warm Up

Work on your story if you didn’t finish…

chapter 7 section 2
Chapter 7 Section 2

The Plasma Membrane

Note: The Plasma Membrane is the same as the cell membrane!

function of the plasma membrane
Function of the Plasma Membrane
  • The plasma membrane is responsible for maintaining the organisms internal environment through selective permeability.
    • This is called homeostasis.
function of the plasma membrane1
Function of the Plasma Membrane
  • The plasma membrane’s function is to allow waste and other products to leave the cell and nutrients to enter, & maintains the proper internal environment.
  • Selective permeability is the property of the plasma membrane that allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out.
      • Example: Think of a fish net.
structure of the plasma membrane
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
  • Most molecules in the plasma membrane are lipids.
    • Lipids are large molecules composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
  • A phospholipid forms when a phosphate group replaces a fatty acid.
  • A phospholipid bilayer contains two layers of phospholipids arranged tail to tail.
    • The arrangement is present so that the plasma membrane can exist in a watery environment.
the phospholipid bilayer
The phospholipid bilayer

The bilayer structure is critical for the formation and function of the plasma membrane.

Polar Head: Phosphate Group

Attracted to H2O



Non-polar Tail:

Fatty acid chains

Repel H2O


the phospholipid bilayer1
The phospholipid bilayer

The 2 layers make a sandwich with the fatty acid tails forming the interior of the p.m. and the phospholipid heads facing the watery environments found inside and outside the cell.

The phospholipids are arranged in such a way that the polar heads can be closest to the water molecules and the nonpolar tails can be farthest away from water molecules.

The plasma membrane can separate the environment inside the cell from the environment outside the cell.

other components of the plasma membrane
Other components of the plasma membrane
  • Major components:
    • Cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Found on the outer surface of the p.m. proteins called receptors transmit signals to the inside of the cell.
  • Proteins on the inner surface anchor the p.m. to the cells internal support structure, giving it shape.
  • Carrier proteins are located throughout the cell to move substances and/or waste materials.
  • Cholesterol helps to prevent the fatty-acid tails of the phospholipid bilayer from sticking together, which allows for fluidity.
    • Avoiding a high cholesterol diet is recommended because just enough is needed for cellular function.
      • If you have too much your body’s cells have to compensate.
  • Stick to proteins and help cells identify chemical signals.
    • Example: carbs might help disease-fighting cells recognize and attack a potential harmful cell.
fluid mosaic model
Fluid Mosaic Model
  • The phospholipids in the bilayer create a “sea” in which other molecules can float.
    • Example: like floating apples in a barrel of water.

Cell Walls & Cell Membranes

Cell Membranes & Cell Walls

check point
Check Point

Identify the molecules in the plasma membrane that provide basic membrane structure, cell identity, and membrane fluidity.

Basic Membrane Structure: Phospholipids

Cell Identity: Proteins & Carbohydrates

Membrane Fluidity: Cholesterol

A __________ is the basic structure molecule making up the plasma membrane.


The ___________ is the component that surrounds all cells.

Plasma Membrane

check point1
Check Point

___________ is the property that allows only some substances in and out of the cell.

Selective Permeability

Hypothesize how a cell would be affected if it lost the ability to be selective in its permeability.

Couldn’t maintain homeostasis & it would die.

What might happen to a cell if it no longer could produce cholesterol?

It would become less fluid.

chapter 7 section 2 notes
Chapter 7 Section 2 Notes

Make sure you have the checkpoint questions in your notes…they could be potential quiz & test questions.

Make sure you have 4 ?’s on the left hand side of your Cornell Notes.

Write a summary—at least 5 sentences. The more the merrier…you have a lot information in this section of notes.

Work on Chapter 7 Section 2 Worksheet


section 3
Section 3

Structure & Organelles

plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane

Function: A flexible boundary that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell.

Key word: Selective permeability.

Cell Type: All cells

Analogy: __________


  • Function: The nucleus contains the cells DNA, stores information used to make proteins
    • For cell growth, function & reproduction.
  • Key Word: Control Center
  • Cell Type: All Eukaryotic Cells
  • Analogy: ____________
  • Headquarters (City Hall)
golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

Function: It’s a flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts & packages proteins into sacs.

Key Word: Packing & Sorting

Cell Type: All Eukaryotic Cells

Analogy: ____________

Post Office

endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum

Function: It contains folded sacs & interconnected channels serves as a site for protein & lipid synthesis.

Key Word: Conveyor Belt

Cell Type: All Eukaryotic Cells

Analogy: ____________



Function: Capture light energy & convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

Key Word: Producer of energy

Cell Type: Euk. Plant cell

Analogy: ____________

Power Plant (Recycling center)


Function: It converts fuel particles (mainly sugar) into usable energy.

Key Word: Powerhouse

Cell Type: All Eukaryotic Cells

Analogy: ____________

Energy Generator (Nuclear Powerplant)


Function: Processes enzymes that digest excess or worn out organelles or food particles.

Key Word: Gets rid of waste

Cell Type: Euk. Animal Cells

Analogy: ____________

Disposal Service

cell city
Cell City:

1. Hydraulic Dam (Mitochondria)

2. Special Carts (Ribosomes)

3. Town Hall (Nucleus)

4. Small Shops (E.R.)

5. Postal Office (G.A)

6. Widget (Protein)

7. Fence (Cell Membrane)

8. Scrap yard (Lysosomes)

9. Carpenter’s Union (Nucleolus)

cell analogy story
Cell Analogy Story:
  • Using the terms:
    • Mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, protein, cell membrane, and lysosomes.
  • Create a story about a school (preferably OHHS).
  • At a local high school called Oak Hills, the main export and production product are students who exemplify integrity & academic excellence…
  • Identify what each organelle is within your story:
  • Students=Protein
table of contents2
Table of Contents

Your Name

Check their table of contents, make sure all 6 assignments are in order in the notebook. If they have week 7 for all assignments, the 7 assignments and pages #’s for each assignment it is worth 18 pts.

table of contents3
Table of Contents

Your Name

Check to see if there are titles for all 6 assignments, if there is, 6pts possible.

table of contents4
Table of Contents

Your Name

Count the points they received on each assignment. There is a max of 98 pts.

table of contents5
Table of Contents

Your Name

Points Possible for this notebook were 122.

summary of cell structures use page 192 199
Summary of Cell Structures (use page 192, 199)
  • With the following organelles: put the organelle if it can be found in that specific cell. *Note: some cells will have the same structures (organelles)
  • Cell Wall, Centrioles, Chloroplast, Cilia, Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Flagella, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosome, Mitochondria, Nucleus, Plasma Membrane, Ribosomes, Vacuole
  • If all 3 cells have the organelle circle them red.
  • If both Plant & Animal cells have that organelle circle them blue.
summary of cell structures
Summary of Cell Structures

*Red: its found in all 3 cells

*Blue: comparing organelles in animal & plant cells.

the ultimate cell
The “Ultimate” Cell
  • Using your Summary of Cell Structures chart, draw the “ultimate” cell.
    • Include all the organelles:
  • Cell Wall
  • Centrioles
  • Chloroplasts
  • Cilia
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Flagella
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Ribosomes
  • Vacuole

For the organelles circle them as follows:




All cells must be colored and labeled to receive full credit!

This is an in-class project…so you need to be working!

Use pages 192, 199

9 27 10 1 daily warm up monday
9/27-10/1 Daily Warm-Up (Monday)

What is the function of the chloroplast and the mitochondria? How do these two organelles differ from each other?

They both produce energy

Chloroplasts exist in plant cells, whereas mitochondria exist in both plant & animal cells.

List some of the essential processes the cell goes through.

Organelles perform protein synthesis, energy transformation, digestion of food, excretion of wastes, and cell division.

FYI on PowerSchool

1.Go to

2. Click on Power School

3. Under Log in: Their User name is their ID number

4. Their password is their birth date MD19xx (NO leading 0's in the month or day, so August 7, 1993 would be 871993

5. They then click submit and they should be in. If they have any questions or problems have them come by counseling.

9 27 10 1 daily warm up tuesday
9/27-10/1 Daily Warm Up (Tuesday)

Which organelle (structure) is found in both plant & animal cells can be a site for temporary storage?


What two structures aid in the movement of cells and help the cell feed?



wednesday warm up
Wednesday Warm Up

What structure creates a protein? (Page 199)


What is found in the cytoskeleton? (2 things) Page 191



thursday warm up
Thursday Warm Up

Based off the definition which organelle (listed on page 199) is always found in pairs?


Based off this analogy which organelle (listed on page 199) resembles bones?


friday warm up
Friday Warm Up

Which organelles function is similar to a conveyor belt?


Which organelles function is similar to a closet?


chapter 7 section 3 quiz
Chapter 7 Section 3 QUIZ

Cell Wall





Endoplasmic Reticulum


Golgi Apparatus




Plasma Membrane



protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
  • 1. Begins in nucleus with the genetic information (DNA).
  • 2. DNA is copied & transferred to another genetic molecule RNA.
  • 3. RNA & Ribosomes leave the nucleus through the pores of the nuclear membrane.
  • 4. Together RNA & Ribosomes manufacture proteins.
    • Proteins made on the rough ER could become part of the plasma membrane, released from the cell or be transported to other organelles.
    • Proteins made on the smooth ER are sent to the Golgi Apparatus.

Site where toxic compounds are neutralized.

pH neutralizer (keeps it a 7)

Animal Cell


section 4
Section 4

Cellular Transport

    • Diffusion & Osmosis
    • Dynamic Equilibrium

Substances diffuse from areas of high concentration to low concentration.

No energy due to the fact that the particles are already moving.

diffusion dynamic equilibrium
Diffusion (Dynamic Equilibrium)
  • Dynamic Equilibrium occurs when particles continue to move randomly, but no further change in concentration will occur.
  • 3 Main factors affect the rate of diffusion:
    • 1. Concentration
    • 2. Temperature
    • 3. Pressure
      • As you increase these three things, so does the process of diffusion.
diffusion across the plasma membrane
Diffusion across the plasma membrane
  • Water can diffuse across the plasma membrane, but most other substances cannot.
  • Facilitated diffusion.
    • This uses transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane.
    • Channel proteins
      • Substances move into the cell through a water-filled transport protein called a channel protein that opens and closes to allow the substance to diffuse through the plasma membrane.
    • Carrier proteins
      • These proteins helps substances diffuse across the plasma membrane
osmosis diffusion of water
Osmosis: Diffusion of Water
  • The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis.
    • Osmosis is important because it maintains the homeostasis of the cell.
how osmosis works
How Osmosis Works

Solution: contains solute and solvent.

Solute: substance

Solvent: liquid solution

The concentration of a solution decreases when the amount of solvent increases.

Water molecules diffuse toward the side with the greater solute concentration.

The water continues to diffuse until dynamic equilibrium takes place.

cells in isotonic solutions
Cells in Isotonic Solutions

A cell in an isotonic solution has the same concentration of water and solutes—ions, sugars, proteins—in its cytoplasm as the fluid around it.

Iso- comes from the Greek word equal.

Water enters & leaves the cell at the same rate.

cells in hypotonic solutions
Cells in Hypotonic Solutions

A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solute (more solvent, water) than the cell’s cytoplasm.

Hypo comes from the Greek word under.

Water diffuses into the cell causing the membrane of the cell to swell, which could possibly cause the cell to burst.

cells in hypertonic solutions
Cells in Hypertonic Solutions

Hypertonic solutions occur when the concentration of the solute outside the cell is higher than the inside (less water outside the cell).

Hyper comes from the Greek word above.

Water diffuses out of the cell and cells shrivel because of the decreased pressure.

active transport
Active Transport

Sometimes substances move from a region of lower concentration to a region of high concentration against the passive movement of high to low.

Some active transport pumps move one type of substances in one direction, while others move 2 substances in the same or opposite directions.

transport of large particles
Transport of Large Particles
  • Some substances that are too large to move through the plasma membrane go through a different process.
  • Endocytosis:
    • Substances are taken into the cell
  • Exocytosis:
    • Substances are expelled or secreted out from the cell
week 8 nb check
Week 8 NB Check

Table of Contents- 12 (1 point for what’s displayed below)

Titles on Assignments- 4

Points on Assignment- No more than 122.

Possible Points 138.