What is Memory? • The outcome of learning • 2 basic categories of learning: 1. Non-associative Results from an experience with a single type of event 2. Associative Caused by the conjunction of 2 or more events
Sensory Storage Information Processing Approach Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
More on Information Processing • Sensory Registry (Sensory Storage) Data is stored in full detail in the sense organ for a fraction of a second. Almost unlimited capacity Registries: Visual Iconic storage Eidetic imagery Auditory Echoic storage Attention The selective filtering of incoming information The “cocktail-party” phenomenon
More on Information Processing • Short-Term Memory Also called “working memory” or “present conscious memory” Capacity limited to 7 +/- 2 chunks of information at a time Time limited to 1.5 to 2 seconds unless rehearsed The serial-position effect The primacy & recency effects Encoding in STM Phonological & visual coding Maintaining information in STM Rote or Maintenance Rehearsal
More on Information Processing • Long-Term Memory Almost unlimited capacity Encoding in LTM by imagery & meaning Storing in LTM by a semantic treeor semantic network Transferring from STM to LTM by Elaborative Rehearsal Associative organization Maintaining in LTM through rote and elaborative rehearsal
Associations the Brain Makes • Everything we see, hear, touch, taste, smell, taste and think is interwoven with associations from past experiences. Basically, they give significance to the world around us. These associations contribute to our individual profile as a person. What we become conscious of depends on the number of associations triggered by a particular event. These associations are influenced by factors such as expectations, motivations, hunger, fatigue, temperature, & biochemistry. We don’t have to be conscious of the associations for them to affect us. Boolean Operator Process Brain Association AND More Specific Items Same as …. NOT Excludes items Different than … OR Alternative items Similar to … NEAR Includes items Almost … Examples: Same as … Cougar & Puma Different than … Tiger & Lion Similar to … Leopard & Jaguar Almost … Felines In the 19th Century, an English mathematician and logician, George Boole (1815-1864) devised a logical foundation for making sense or what appears to be illogical. This foundation became known as Boolean Operators or Boolean Logic. This is the same kind of logic used in computers, on the Internet, and in the brain as it makes associations. Boole described the four operators as: AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR.
Forgetting • Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory for events preceding an accident, injury, or disease without loss of earlier memories. Anterograde Amnesia Loss of memory for events after an accident, injury, or disease but not necessarily for subsequent memories. • Diseases of Memory Alzheimer’s Disease Parkinson’s Disease Korsakoff’s Syndrome
The Interference Theory of Forgetting • Retroactive Interference New memories block the retrieval of old memories; new learning interferes or inhibits your ability to remember something you had learned. • Proactive Interference Old memories block the retrieval of newer memories: old learning interferes or inhibits your ability to learn something now.
Summary of Forgetfulness Concept Description Example Decay Theory Gradual fading of memory as a Facts you learned in school gradually function of time fade out of memory over time. Interference Theory Disruption of memory caused by After sifting through your psychology interference of previously learned lecture, you forget what you learned in material or newly learned material chemistry class the hour before. Retrieval TheoryFailure to access material stored in You have difficulty remembering memory because of encoding failure something you know is stored in or lack of retrieval cues memory. Motivated Forgetting Repression of anxiety-provoking You cannot remember a traumatic material childhood experience. Retrograde AmnesiaLoss of memory of past events After suffering a blow to the head in a car accident, you are unable to remem- ber details of the accident itself. Anterograde AmnesiaLoss of impairment of the ability to Due to a brain disorder, you find it form or store new memories difficult to retain new information
Improper storage cues The memories weren’t given the appropriate cues to encode them properly Memory changes over time Neuronal and biochemical changes reconstruct & deconstruct memories Memory’s Fallacies 1. Transience: The forgetting that occurs with the passing of time. 2. Absent-mindedness: Often attributed to 4 things, 1) divided attention, 2) insufficient attention at the time of encoding, 3) “operating on automatic,” and 4) encoding at an extremely shallow level. 3.Blocking: Retrieval cues are unavailable even though a word or name has been encoded and stored. 4. Misattribution: Recalling events that never happened or recalling them incorrectly or at the wrong time or place. This occurs in the absence of suggestion. 5. Suggestibility: The tendency to use misleading information from external cues into personal recollections. 6.Bias: Memories of the past are rescripted to fit your present views and needs (past events are filtered by current knowledge, memories are shaped to your present interpretation of the world, the past is constructed as similar or different than the present). 7.Persistence: Remembering things you wish to forget (failures, traumas, sadness, disappointments, etc.). The Fallibility of Memory
State Dependent Memory Learning is best when you are in a particular state of mind and best remembered when in that same state. Context Dependent Memory It’s easier to remember something when you’re in the same context in which you learned it. Situational Factors in Memory
Why Do We Forget? • The lower brain checks out emotional possibilities & alerts the cortex • Translation from STM to LTM involves processing the meaning of the stimulus & categorizes it. • SIS is clear but each new impression destroys the one before. • The primacy & recency effects
Styles of Retrieval 1. Sequential Search Going through each piece of information until the appropriate information is found. 2. Using Retrieval Cues Retrieval is through a semantic network of associations. Improving Memory Attention Rehearsal & Repetition Organization Imagery Method of Loci Mnemonics Overlearning Meaningfulness Retrieving Information