On balance, what are the projections for ocean change? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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On balance, what are the projections for ocean change?

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  1. On balance, what are the projections for ocean change? • It depends . . . • How much warming and what feedbacks? • Warming projections: • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • 2.7 to 3.3 K to 2100 • Feedbacks are studied with “General Circulation Models”

  2. Data acquisition

  3. Changes in temperature

  4. Changes in sea level

  5. Historical change in salinity

  6. Current model projections • Thermal expansion contributes major sea level increase, but not as much as adding freshwater • Glacial melt could contribute 130 – 160 mm increase • Antarctic ice cap melting offset by increased precipitation • Redistribution of Antarctic sea ice (melting) increases equatorial & northern sea level through gravity effect

  7. Mammals 'floated to Madagascar' By Mark KinverScience and environment reporter, BBC News The ancestors of the current mammals found on the island of Madagascar could have been transported on floating vegetation from Africa, a study says.

  8. Climate is influenced by global winds and ocean currents

  9. Global Winds from Satellite Data Global Winds

  10. Coriolis Effect • Based on the rotation of a sphere (the Earth) • Illustration • Influences the rotation of eddies at intermediate scales • Influences the rotation of gyres at the scale of ocean basins

  11. Northeastern Pacific Wind Pattern

  12. Southeast Pacific Wind Pattern

  13. Winds link land & oceans

  14. surface water currents

  15. link between surface and deep circulation

  16. Coriolis effect influences deep circulation

  17. Equatorial upwelling

  18. Current direction varies with depth

  19. Current patterns differ among ocean basins

  20. Indian Ocean

  21. Biological productivity is influenced by ocean currents