On balance, what are the projections for ocean change? • It depends . . . • How much warming and what feedbacks? • Warming projections: • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • 2.7 to 3.3 K to 2100 • Feedbacks are studied with “General Circulation Models”
Current model projections • Thermal expansion contributes major sea level increase, but not as much as adding freshwater • Glacial melt could contribute 130 – 160 mm increase • Antarctic ice cap melting offset by increased precipitation • Redistribution of Antarctic sea ice (melting) increases equatorial & northern sea level through gravity effect
Mammals 'floated to Madagascar' By Mark KinverScience and environment reporter, BBC News The ancestors of the current mammals found on the island of Madagascar could have been transported on floating vegetation from Africa, a study says.
Global Winds from Satellite Data Global Winds
Coriolis Effect • Based on the rotation of a sphere (the Earth) • Illustration • Influences the rotation of eddies at intermediate scales • Influences the rotation of gyres at the scale of ocean basins