Are you leading change? Or is changeleading you?Navigating change R. Kevin Grigsby, MSW, DSW AAMC Sr. Director, Member Organizational Development IAAP Leadership Training Camp August 2014
Objectives • Understand the difference between leading change and managingchange • Better understand your own emotions regarding change • Learn four types of organizational change • Adopt new tools and strategies for dealing with different types of change
Are you leading change? “Vision without action is a daydream, Action without vision is a nightmare.” Japanese proverb
Or is change leading you? “Life is what happens to you. You have no say in what comes your way. Take what comes and make the best of it.”
The worst: VUCA • Volatile • Uncertain • Complex • Ambiguous
Tolerating ambiguity • The ability to encounter and survive situations lacking clarity and that may include inconsistent, vague, incomplete, and fragmented information • “We are in limbo!” • Can be measured • Can be learned
Four types of organizational change Developmental – “a growing organization” Transitional – “an expanding organization” Structural – “complexity increase in the organization” Transformational – “changing the culture of the organization."
All types require strategy • A clear, compelling case for change is necessary but not sufficient. • A thoughtful change strategy must be developed before leaving the present state. • People want to know how they will get to the new state (action steps, support, rewards). • They want to know what it will be like when they arrive (vision, roles, responsibilities, rewards). • And they want acknowledgment of their real losses.
Actions . . . • Make the case • Don’t assume • Create a strategy BEFORE you leave the present • Tell everyone the expected action steps • Tell everyone what it will be like AFTER the change • Acknowledge their real losses
If things were simple, word would have gotten around.- Jacques Derrida
Developmental Change • A growing organization • Every organizational is in the midst of a developmental process • Improvements in what the organization is already doing • Strategy: Be mindful, deliberate (like Thich Nhat Hanh)
Transitional Change • An expanding organization • Organization is in the midst of major change affecting all aspects of operations; dismantling of the “old way” and implementation of the “new way” • You can determine your destination before you begin to change • Example: Moving to a new building or different city • Strategy: Plan. Practice. Practice again.
Structural Change • Complexity is increasing in the organization • An organization changes how it functions or operates re: • Policy • Personnel • Organizational hierarchy • Physical environment • Strategy: Communicate, communicate, communicate! It is impossible to over-communicate about structural change.
Transformational Change • Changing the organizational culture • Future state is likely to be very different and not fully understood at the outset • May result in the change of an entire industry • Requires an inner shift of mind state and an outer shift of behavior • Strategy: Never waste a crisis!
Eight steps to transform the culture • Establish a sense of urgency • Form a powerful guiding coalition • Create a compelling vision of the future • Communicate the vision • Empower others to act on the vision • Plan and create short term wins • Consolidate improvement to produce more change • Institutionalize new approaches
People change when what they value is threatened • Example • One’s self image as an attractive, healthy, active person is challenged. • How? • You overhear a child describe you as “that fat guy over there.”
Change process in people • Pre-contemplation • Contemplation • Preparation • Action • Maintenance • Termination Prochaska & Diclemente, 1986.
Pre-Contemplation • You have not considered change, but you know you. Ask yourself: • What is holding me back? • What will it take for you to make a commitment? • “Ignorance is bliss.”
Contemplation • Seriously considering change, but not yet ready to start the change process. Ask yourself: • What will it take to make a commitment to weight loss and exercise? • “Sitting on the fence.”
Preparation • You made a commitment to action. Think about the details involved. Will you take the stairs rather than the elevator? Order a la carte instead of having the buffet? Track your food intake and daily exercise routine? • Set goals: One day, one week, one month, three months. Determine how you will reward yourself for accomplishing each goal. • “Testing the waters”
Action • Put your plan in motion. Make your schedule and environment conducive to being active: Take the stairs, not the elevator. Don’t get the buffet. Go to the fitness center. • Think in the long-term and stick to the plan. Reward yourself for sticking to the plan. • “Practicing new behaviors”
Maintenance • You are on your way to success. You have demonstrated the new behavior and sustained it over a specific time period – 6 months. • Create a mental image of yourself exercising. Tell yourself you are an active person and then enact it. • “Sustaining the new behaviors”
Termination • You did it! You are more active, less sedentary. • “Consistently enacting the new behavior”
Relapse • Resumption of negative behaviors • Consider it to be a part of the process. Use it as impetus for developing better coping strategies. • “Falling from grace (or off the wagon)”
Common barriers to change • Tyranny of the Urgent • Conspiracy of Interruptions • Organizational structure • Silos, fiefdoms • Societal “realities” • Cultural arrogance, male-centeredness, fallacy of exception (we are so unique!)
The Tyranny of the Urgent Something always needs to be done RIGHT NOW! Feels like “putting out fires”
The Conspiracy of Interruption Just when you get to the point of thinking you can do what you want to do – Another URGENT need for action appears in your path!
Assessment High/High High/Low Mission Value Low/High Low/Low Performance Value
Denial Many persons are not conscious of how they are disrupting the change process
Dismissal When confronted, people dismiss the disruptive behaviors as being of little or no consequence
Defensiveness When dismissing the issue fails, persons often try to justify the behaviors and counter opposing points of view by arguing the behavior is functional or necessary
Diminishment • Persons turn against those who initiate change, those who promote change, or those who hold them accountable for disrupting change • At a minimum, they attack our credibility
Disengagement • Apathetic; may engage in learned helplessness; demoralization • Lights are on, but no one’s home
Avoid the knowing–doing gap Use a solution-focused approach: • Keeps conversations away from whining • Keeps the focus on problem solving and away from making the error of thinking that talking about something is the same as doing something – it’s not the same!
Remain solution-focused • When engaged in a conversation and the other party offers criticism, but no proposed solution, prompt them by stating “I understand your comments and feel some of them are valid criticisms. But please tell me, “What is your solution?” • Agree that if no solution is offered, the group will stick to a solution that has been proposed OR will continue to work to find a better solution
Self awareness • Basic competency of influential leaders • Self-awareness • Mindfulness • Develop comfort with the “inner self” and present themselves positively to others
Collaboration • Duty of influential leaders • Use trust and accountability to move an organization toward its goals • Effective communication, cooperative attitudes, and integrated teams are the hallmarks of successful collaboration in the change process
Connection • Strategy of influential leaders • Create true connections with others • Bring out the genius of others Wiseman & McKeown 2010.
References Adorno T, Frenkel-Brunswik E, Levinson D, Sanford N. The Authoritarian Personality, Studies in Prejudice Series, Volume 1. New York: Harper & Row, 1950. Brown B. Daring Greatly. Gotham Books, 2012. Also see https://www.ted.com/talks/brene_brown_on_vulnerability Erhard WH, Jensen MC, Granger KL. Creating Leaders: An Ontological/Phenomenological Model. In Snook S, Nohria N, Khurana R. The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing and Being. Sage, 2012: 245-262. Frisina ME. Influential Leadership. Chicago: AHA Press, 2011. Kets de Vries MFR, Korotov K. Transformational Leadership Development Programs. In Snook S, Nohria N, Khurana R. The Handbook for Teaching Leadership: Knowing, Doing and Being. Sage, 2012: 263-282. Kotter JP. Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 1995. Reprint 95204. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Toward a comprehensive model of change. In: Miller, WR; Heather, N. (eds.) Treating Addictive Behaviors: Processes of Change. New York: Plenum Press; 1986:3–27. Schein EH. Organizational Culture and Leadership (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass, 1992. Wiseman E. McKeown G. Multipliers. Harper Business, 2010.