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Understanding Global Cultures Cultural Metaphors http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text Cultural Metaphors Unit of analysis = the nation or national culture “national character studies” The Chrysanthemum and the Sword – Ruth Benedict Cultural Metaphors

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slide2

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#texthttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text

cultural metaphors
Cultural Metaphors
  • Unit of analysis

= the nation or national culture

        • “national character studies”
          • The Chrysanthemum and the Sword – Ruth Benedict
cultural metaphors4
Cultural Metaphors
  • Other “units of analysis” may include:
    • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
        • “life histories”
slide5

Paul Buffalo

Meditating

Medicine

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/Intro-Temp2.html

slide6

Sharon Gmelch

Nan: The Life of an Irish Traveling Woman, Revised Edition.

Long Grove: IL: Waveland Press, 1991.

(ISBN: 0881336025)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#Nan

cultural metaphors7
Cultural Metaphors
  • Other “units of analysis” may include:
    • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
    • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
    • the community
    • a region (“culture area”)
      • Mesoamerica
      • The Northwest Coast (of North America)
      • The Upper Midwest
      • The Mideast
      • “Sub-Saharan Africa”
      • Aran Islands
slide8

John C. Messenger

Inis Beag: Isle of Ireland.

Long Grove: IL: Waveland Press, 1983.

(ISBN: 0881330515)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#InisBeag

cultural metaphors9
Cultural Metaphors
  • Other “units of analysis” may include:
    • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
    • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
    • the community
    • a region (“culture area”)
    • a culture
      • “Irish”
      • “Chinese”
      • “Mexicans”
      • “Bedouins”
cultural metaphors10
Cultural Metaphors
  • but cultural metaphors can be derived for ethnic groups within and across nations
    • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
    • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
    • e.g., Irish “Travellers”
      • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
    • e.g., Kurds
    • e.g., Basques
slide11

Mark Kurlansky

The Basque History of the World.

NY: Penguin Books, 1999.

(ISBN: 0140298517)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#BasqueHistory

cultural metaphors12
Cultural Metaphors
  • Unit of analysis = the nation or national culture
  • applies to a group, but not to every individual within it
cultural metaphors13
Cultural Metaphors
  • Unit of analysis = the nation or national culture
    • because a good amount of evidence suggests that there are commonalities across regional, racial, and ethnic groups within each of them that can be captured effectively by cultural metaphors
cultural metaphors14
Cultural Metaphors
  • Unit of analysis = the nation or national culture
    • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28 metaphors
    • there are approximately 200 nations in the world
      • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)
communication
Communication

Ken Livingston, mayor of London England, indicated that there were over 300 languages spoken in London.

(Following the terrorist attack of July 2005)

communication16
Communication

How many languages

are spoken in

St. Paul Minnesota ?

slide17
Culture Counts

and it counts quit a bit

constructing cultural metaphors
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 . . .
cultural metaphors include
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • religion
  • early socialization and family structure
  • small group behavior
  • public behavior
  • leisure pursuits and interests
cultural metaphors include20
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • total Lifestyle
    • work / leisure / home and time allocations to each of them
  • aural space
    • the degree to which members of a society react negatively to high noise levels
  • roles and status of different members of a society
cultural metaphors include21
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • holidays and ceremonies
  • greeting behavior
  • humor
cultural metaphors include22
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • language
    • oral and written communication
cultural metaphors include23
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • nonoral communication
    • body language
      • kinesics (motion)
      • proxemics (space)
cultural metaphors include24
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • sports
    • as a reflection of cultural values
  • political structure of a society
  • the educational system of a society
cultural metaphors include25
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • traditions and the degree to which the established order is emphasized
  • history of a society
    • but only as it reflects cultural mind-sets, or the manner in which its members think, feel, and act
    • not a detailed history
cultural metaphors include26
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • food and eating behavior
cultural metaphors include27
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • social class structure
  • rate of technological and cultural change
  • organization of and perspective on work
    • such as a society’s commitment to the work ethic, superior-subordinate relationships, and so on
  • any other categories that are appropriate
a four stage model of cross cultural understanding
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
    • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages
emics etics
Emics / Etics

emics

  • from “phonemics”
  • viewing a culture from the inside

etics

  • from “phonetics”
  • viewing a culture from the outside

More on the “emics” and “etics” later

four stage model
“Four-Stage Model”

One variable of the

“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals

four stage model31
“Four-Stage Model”

Another variable of the

“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression

fig 1 1 process goals and expression of emotions p 12
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of Emotions (p. 12)

More on the “Four-Stage Model” later

cultural metaphors33
Cultural Metaphors

“Metaphors

are not stereotypes”

– Martin J. Gannon

Why?

slide34
Geert Hofstede (1991)
  • IBM study demonstrated that national culture explained 50% of the differences in attitudes in IBM’s 53 countries
slide35
“Given such studies, it seems that culture influences between 25% and 50% of our attitudes, whereas other aspects of workforce diversity, such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and age, account for the remainder of these attitudinal differences.”
slide36
“Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key cultural value, he or she is not even aware of the violation, and no one brings the matter to his or her attention.”
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize that polite rejections really signify isolation and banishment
slide38
“. . . Knowing a country’s language, although clearly helpful, is no guarantee of understanding its cultural mindset, and some of the most difficult problems have been created by individuals who have a high level of fluency but a low level of cultural understanding.”
slide39
“Moreover, members of a culture tend to assume that highly fluent visitors know the customs and rules of behavior, and these visitors are judged severely when violations occur.”
cultural metaphors40
Cultural Metaphors
  • Understanding Global Cultures describes a method for understanding easily and quickly the cultural mind-set of a nation and comparing it to other nations
cultural metaphors41
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves identifying some phenomenon, activity, or institution of a nation’s culture that all or most of its members consider to be very important and with which they identify closely
    • the characteristics of the metaphor then become the basis for describing and understanding the essential features of the society
cultural metaphors42
Cultural Metaphors
  • each metaphor is a guide or map that helps the foreigner understand quickly what members of a society consider very important
    • but it is only a starting point against which we can compare our own experiences and through which we can start to understand the seeming contradictions pervasive in most, if not all, societies
cultural metaphors43
Cultural Metaphors
  • book describes a dominant, and perhaps the dominant, metaphor for each society
    • but other metaphors may also be suitable
constructing cultural metaphors44
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Plus items on p. 11 . . .
constructing cultural metaphors45
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
    • note that each society has a dominant cultural orientation that can be described in terms of six dimensions
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the nature of people, that is, are people good, bad, or a mixture?”
      • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called “existential postulates”
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck47
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the relationship between a person and nature, that is, should we live in harmony with it or subjugate it?”
      • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called “normative postulates”
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck48
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the relationship between people, that is, should a person act in an individual manner or consider the group before taking action?”
      • individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in terms of such issues as making decisions, conformity, and so forth
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck49
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the primary mode of activity in a given society, that is, being, or accepting the status quo, enjoying the current situation, and going with the flow of things;

or doing, that is, changing things to make them better, setting specific goals and accomplishing them within specific schedules, and so forth?”

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck50
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the conception of space in a given society,

that is, is it considered private, in that meetings are held in private, people do not get too close to one another physically, and so on;

or public, that is, having everyone participate in meetings and decision making, allowing emotions to be expressed publicly, and having people stand in close proximity to one another?”

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck51
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the society’s dominant temporal orientation”

past

present

and / or future?

constructing cultural metaphors52
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society has a dominant cultural orientation that can be described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also exist simultaneously in its different geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups
constructing cultural metaphors53
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
    • made many discoveries in how people learn language
    • analyzed the levels of learning
edward t hall
Edward T. Hall
  • “Context,

or the amount of information that must be explicitly stated if a message or communication is to be successful”

edward t hall55
Edward T. Hall
  • “Space,

or the ways of communicating through specific handling of personal space”

    • e.g., North Americans tend to keep more space between them while communicating than do South Americans
edward t hall56
Edward T. Hall
  • Time, which is either

monochronic

(scheduling and completing one activity at a time)

or polychronic

(not distinguishing between activities and completing them simultaneously – “multitasking”)

edward t hall57
Edward T. Hall
  • “Information flow,

which is the structure and speed of messages between individuals and / or organizations”

constructing cultural metaphors58
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
geert hofstede
Geert Hofstede
  • prominent organizational psychologist
  • research is based on a large questionnaire survey of IBM employees and managers working in 53 different countries
  • especially significant because the type of organization is held constant
geert hofstede60
Geert Hofstede
  • Power distance

or the degree to which members of a society automatically accept a hierarchical or unequal distribution of power in organizations and the society

geert hofstede61
Geert Hofstede
  • Uncertainty avoidance

or the degree to which members of a given society deal with the uncertainty and risk of everyday life and prefer to work with long-term acquaintances and friends rather than with strangers

geert hofstede62
Geert Hofstede
  • Individualism

or the degree to which an individual perceives him- or her-self to be separate from a group and free from group pressure to conform

geert hofstede63
Geert Hofstede
  • Masculinity

or the degree to which a society looks favorably on aggressive and materialistic behavior

geert hofstede64
Geert Hofstede
  • Time horizon

(short term to long term)

or the degree to which members of a culture are willing to defer present gratification in order to achieve long-term goals

slide65
The “three-dimensional approaches” developed by Kluckholn and Strodtbeck, Hall, and Hofstende
  • leave out many features of the cultural mind-sets that are activated in daily cultural activities
  • neglect the institutions molding these mind-sets
  • are instructive, but are “somewhat lifeless and narrow”
  • leave out many facets of behavior
constructing cultural metaphors66
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 . . .
slide67

Text:

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text