Understanding Global Cultures Cultural Metaphors http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text Cultural Metaphors Unit of analysis = the nation or national culture “national character studies” The Chrysanthemum and the Sword – Ruth Benedict Cultural Metaphors
= the nation or national culture
Nan: The Life of an Irish Traveling Woman, Revised Edition.
Long Grove: IL: Waveland Press, 1991.
Inis Beag: Isle of Ireland.
Long Grove: IL: Waveland Press, 1983.
The Basque History of the World.
NY: Penguin Books, 1999.
Ken Livingston, mayor of London England, indicated that there were over 300 languages spoken in London.
(Following the terrorist attack of July 2005)
How many languages
are spoken in
St. Paul Minnesota ?
and it counts quit a bit
More on the “emics” and “etics” later
One variable of the
“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals
Another variable of the
“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression
More on the “Four-Stage Model” later
are not stereotypes”
– Martin J. Gannon
or doing, that is, changing things to make them better, setting specific goals and accomplishing them within specific schedules, and so forth?”
that is, is it considered private, in that meetings are held in private, people do not get too close to one another physically, and so on;
or public, that is, having everyone participate in meetings and decision making, allowing emotions to be expressed publicly, and having people stand in close proximity to one another?”
and / or future?
or the amount of information that must be explicitly stated if a message or communication is to be successful”
or the ways of communicating through specific handling of personal space”
(scheduling and completing one activity at a time)
(not distinguishing between activities and completing them simultaneously – “multitasking”)
which is the structure and speed of messages between individuals and / or organizations”
or the degree to which members of a society automatically accept a hierarchical or unequal distribution of power in organizations and the society
or the degree to which members of a given society deal with the uncertainty and risk of everyday life and prefer to work with long-term acquaintances and friends rather than with strangers
or the degree to which an individual perceives him- or her-self to be separate from a group and free from group pressure to conform
or the degree to which a society looks favorably on aggressive and materialistic behavior
(short term to long term)
or the degree to which members of a culture are willing to defer present gratification in order to achieve long-term goals