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The Making of Modern Europe (1450-1700). Europe began devising new techniques to increase its power and force to such an extent that European dynastic states achieved global domination. I. A New Way of Thinking. A. The “New World” ( Mundus Novus ). First applied to Columbus’ voyages

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the making of modern europe 1450 1700

The Making of Modern Europe (1450-1700)

Europe began devising new techniques to increase its power and force to such an extent that European dynastic states achieved global domination.

a the new world mundus novus
A. The “New World” (Mundus Novus)
  • First applied to Columbus’ voyages
  • Later applied to a new societal outlook
  • Francis Bacon’s The Great Reversal (1620)
  • Priority of seeking knowledge through reason and the scientific method
  • Observation and experimentation valued
  • Practical knowledge was prized
b the role of doubt in the new search for truth
B. The Role of Doubt in the New Search for Truth
  • Breakdown in the medieval system of unitary belief
  • Aggravated by the Reformation
  • Humanism competes rather than complements the Christian tradition
  • The Essay: a new literary genre
  • Removal of politics from the realm of religion
c the printing press
C. The Printing Press
  • Intellectual Revolution through the spread of books and tracts
  • Literacy grows
  • Communication between scholars grows
  • Standardization of texts
d the scientific revolution
D. The Scientific Revolution
  • Aristotelian universe comes under scrutiny and attack
  • The challenge of Copernicus
  • Theological application of Aristotle’s cosmology
  • The medieval, Aristotelian cosmos
  • Aristotle’s understanding of motion
  • Concept of matter and form
a motivation
A. Motivation
  • Western trade route to Asia
  • Lust for Wealth
  • Religious motives
  • Notion of mercantilism
  • Joint Stock Companies formed
  • Nationalistic Competition
  • Curiosity and Sense of Adventure
  • Leave personal problems behind
1 new inventions
(1) New Inventions
  • Medieval Navigational methods
  • Earliest compass appears in Europe in the 1200’s
  • The development of the astrolabe
  • Improvements in Cartography
2 new ships
(2) New Ships
  • Medieval Galley Ships
  • The new Caravel or “Fully-Rigged” Ship
  • Required new, “tumble home” hull design
  • Ships become floating cannon platforms
3 results
(3) Results
  • European domination of the globe—at a price
  • Brutal warfare of Europeans and Native Americans
  • Ecological Revolution
  • Epidemiological Disaster
  • The importation of African slaves
a the introduction of gunpowder
A. The Introduction of Gunpowder
  • Chinese origins
  • First guns in Italy during the 14th century
  • Cannons introduced to Europe during the Hundred Years War
  • Cannons were instrumental in the Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1453
b the impact of this technological revolution
B. The Impact of this Technological Revolution
  • Warfare was “royalized”
  • Associated industries were stimulated

--Between 1460-1530, there was a 500% increase in metal production in Europe

  • Infantry became the primary fighting unit instead of the cavalry
c the new significance of the infantry
C. The New Significance of the Infantry
  • Cost
  • Professionalism
  • Social Impact
  • Ennobling Aspect of War questioned
  • New Tactics
  • Vulnerability of mounted troops
d new technologies resulting from gunpowder warfare
D. New Technologies Resulting from Gunpowder Warfare
  • Improvements in the quality of gunpowder
  • Shape, size and mobility of cannons are improved
  • Standardization of the caliber of weapons
  • Science of ballistics develops
a comparison to medieval monarchy
A. Comparison to Medieval Monarchy
  • Royal power was restricted regionally
  • Complex pattern of overlapping jurisdictions
  • Feudalism
  • Changes in warfare described previously increased the power of the monarch at the expense of the nobility
  • Royal efficiency in collecting taxes
a comparison to medieval monarchy cont
A. Comparison to Medieval Monarchy (cont)
  • Royal bureaucracy became a national administration
  • Global domination by European monarchies for the first time in history
  • No standing army leads to a less powerful king
  • Tax immunity for nobles
  • Medieval institutions “devolved” over time
  • Geographic shift in European political and economic power
1 the definition and evolution of absolutism
(1) The Definition and Evolution of Absolutism
  • Sovereignty embedded in the person of the ruler

-- “L’etat c’est moi.”

  • National crisis in France between 1570-1600 is ended by the Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • The regency of Louis XIII: Cardinal Richelieu
  • Political power more important than religious purity
1 the evolution of absolutism cont
(1) The Evolution of Absolutism (cont)
  • Richelieu attacks the power of the French nobility
  • The regency of Louis XIV: Cardinal Mazarin
  • The “Fronde” Rebellion
  • Louis’ near drowning during the “Fronde”
  • Reign of Louis XIV is the longest of any European monarch in history: 1643-1715
2 symbol of french absolutism louis xiv
(2) Symbol of French Absolutism: Louis XIV
  • Versailles is the stage for this drama of absolutism
  • The “Sun King”
  • Louis’ use of gunpowder warfare
  • The financial policies of Colbert
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
  • Use of secret police
  • French manners and absolutism copied all over Europe
1 background
(1) Background
  • Elizabeth I dies without an heir
  • Advent of the Stuart Dynasty

--James I: 1603-1625

--Charles I: 1625-1649

  • Power of the British Parliament
  • Powerful minority of Puritans in Parliament
2 crisis
(2) Crisis
  • The “Long Parliament” (1640)
  • English Civil War: 1642-1649
  • Execution of Charles I in 1649
  • The Interregnum

--Oliver Cromwell

3 restoration
(3) Restoration
  • Charles II agrees to call Parliament often (1660-1685)
  • Charles II develops a primitive cabinet system
  • Secret deal to re-Catholicize England
  • Reign of James II (1685-1688)
  • Produces a Catholic male heir
4 the glorious revolution
(4) “The Glorious Revolution”
  • James II with wife and child fled to France
  • Bloodless Revolution
  • Parliament offers the throne to William and Mary
  • English monarchs accepted they were under the rule of law and sovereignty rested with the people
v william shakespeare the prophet of modern europe 1564 1616
V. William Shakespeare: The Prophet of Modern Europe (1564-1616)
  • Renaissance focus on Classical Culture
  • Nationalistic impulses
  • Exorbitant Ambition
  • Increasing Individualism
  • The Anguish and Uncertainty of Modern Man