1450 to 1750: The Early Modern Era. Periodization: Continuities, Causes of Change. 1450-1750: The Early Modern Era. Changes in Trade, Technology, and Global Interactions Crusades – increased European desire to obtain goods from the East, begin to search for trade routes
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1450 to 1750: The Early Modern Era Periodization: Continuities, Causes of Change
1450-1750: The Early Modern Era • Changes in Trade, Technology, and Global Interactions • Crusades – increased European desire to obtain goods from the East, begin to search for trade routes • 1450 – Trade focused on Europe, Asia, Africa – Mediterranean Sea/Indian Ocean • Spain/Portugal are the leaders of the Age of Exploration – Why?? Emergence of New Technology! • England, France, the Dutch become involved in exploration later. • 1492 – Columbus – Columbian Exchange between Americas and Europe • Core vs. Dependent Zones of Trade • Plantation System emerges in the Americas – Sugar primarily, Tobacco in Southern North America • Encomienda System Plantation System • Decline in Natives Slave Trade Triangle Trade with West Africa “Gun and Slave” Cycle • Emergence of a Global Trade network with Europeans serving as facilitators • Latin America – Spain/Portugal • North America – England/France/Dutch • Africa/Asia – Coastal Trading Centers emerge for Europeans, not colonized until Age of New Imperialism in the 1800’s
Demographic and Environmental Changes • Foods in Americas (Maize, Potato) grown in Asia and Europe Rise in Population • Diseases, Encomienda System of Europeans led to a decline in the Native population of the Americas Europe turns toward Africa as a source of labor • Native population declines by as much as 50% of Pre-European arrival numbers • Slave Trade – As many as 12 million Africans brought to the Americas Why is this number so high? • Population of Americas begins to increase Emergence of Sociedad de Castas • Penisulares Creoles Mestizo/Mulatto Natives/Slaves • During this time period, Europeans begin to focus on settlement of Americas women and children begin to arrive, government structures put in place, laws established. • Colonies governed by bureaucracy Europeans maintain control
Knowledge of Major Empires and Political Units • Ottoman - Mughal India • China - Africa • Portugal - Russia • France - England • Tokugawa Japan - Spain • What is the role of women in these empires?
France • 1337-1443 – 100 Years War – France vs. England – England driven from France • Following war, French unified under strong monarchs • Religious differences emerge between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) • Edict of Nantes – 1598 – Religious toleration in France
France • Louis XIV (14th) 1643-1715 • “Sun King” • Focus on arts and culture • Built the Palace at Versailles • Never summoned the Estates General (Parliament) • Revoked the Edict of Nantes – Religious persecution of Huguenots increased, begin to leave France served as middle class
France • War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) • Louis XIV’s grandson inherited the throne of Spain Would have increased power of France • England, Germany, HRE unify against France • Fear of growing French empire overseas (Americas) • 1714 – France gives up most of territory in North America to England • 1750 – France serves as a cultural center of the arts
Tokugawa Japan • 1607-1868 • 16th Century – Decline of feudalism, increased powers of central government • 1542 – Portugal trade with Japan (Introduce Western weapons) • Beginning of Christian missionaries arriving in Japan (Jesuits) • Christian missionaries take over the port city of Nagasaki
Tokugawa Japan • Founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu • Rigid class system (Caste?) • Warrior, farmer, artisan, merchant • Edo (Tokyo) Period in Japanese history • Persecution of Christians, prohibit Japanese from traveling abroad • Fear of Japan being taken over by the West (Spain, England, Portugal in Asia) • Focus on Japanese culture and history • Increased emphasis on Buddhism and Shintoism • This period in Japanese history led to complete isolation. This isolation made it necessary for the Japanese to undergo a rapid period of industrialization known as the Meiji Restoration, beginning in 1868.
Mughal India • Founded in 1526 by Babur • Unification of Indian subcontinent – was controlled by various regional kingdoms • Akbar the Great (1556-1605) • Religious toleration between Hindu and Muslim • Eliminated special tax placed on the Hindu population • Eliminated Sati – role of women increased • Din-i-Ilahi – blends parts of Hinduism and Islam • Considered the Golden Age of the Mughal Empire
Mughal India • After Akbar’s death in 1605 • Religious toleration ended • Shah Jahan and Jahangir focus more on the arts and culture than governance • Reinstatement of the tax on the Hindu population – increased religious tension • Arrival of the Europeans in the early 17th century – Portugal and Britain • 1661 – British East India Company • 1691- British in Calcutta • Focus on Europeans acquiring resources from India, this is before the Industrial Revolution.
African Kingdoms • Songhay – Islamic state, Trans-Saharan Trade (Gold, Salt, Slaves) • Mali – Islam – Mansa Musa • Kongo – Trade with Portugal – 1480’s – Conversion to Christianity • Portuguese presence in Africa increased in 1570’s Slave Trade
Russia • Ivan the Great (III) – 1462-1505 • Russia free of Mongol Rule • Expansion of territory to Ural Mountains
Russia • Ivan the Terrible (IV) 1533-1584 • Expansion of Russian Borders • Secret police, ruled as a totalitarian dictator • Recruits peasants to migrate to new areas (Cossacks) • Dies without an heir – “Time of Troubles”
Russia • Following Ivan the Terrible, the Romanov dynasty emerges, originally led by Alexis, then his son Peter. • Peter the Great – 1689-1725 • Totalitarian Ruler • Westernization
Peter the Great • Westernization • Military • Industrial development • Law Codes • Beard Tax • Clothing • St. Petersburg “Window to the West”
Catherine the Great • 1762-1796 • “Selective” Westernizer – influenced by the Enlightenment • Encourages travel • Harsh control of the serfs • 1649 – Serfdom hereditary • Whole villages of serfs sold • Are not granted “freedom” until 1863 • Catherine harshly puts down rebellions designed to free the serfs. • Power of landlords increased
England • Henry VIII (8th) • 1509-1547 • Anglican church created after refusal of Catholic Church to grant a divorce. • Search for a male heir • Elizabeth I, daughter, takes the throne upon the death of Henry.
Elizabeth I • 1558-1603 • Commercial expansion, exploration • Destroyed Spanish Armada – 1588 • British East India Company • Exploration of North America Colony of Virginia • Conflict between Protestant and Catholic • Considered Golden Age of England
England • James I - 1607 • Founding of Jamestown in 1607 • Puritans refuse to recognize control of King over religion • Pilgrims to North America - 1620
England • Charles I • 1625 • Petition of Right – 1628 – Limit taxes, unlawful imprisonment • Charles ignored law • Forced to call Parliament to meet in 1640 due to invasion of England by Scotland. • “Long Parliament” - 1640-1660 – Limited Absolute Powers
England • English Civil War 1642-1651 • Oliver Cromwell • Religious Persecution • Charles II 1660-1688 • Glorious Revolution 1688 – William and Mary • English Bill of Rights - 1689
Spain • 1469 – Ferdinand and Isabella • Western Exploration encouraged • 1492 – Columbus • 1519 – Magellan – Pacific, Indonesia, Philippines
Spain • 1519 – Charles V • Declared Holy Roman Emperor • Controls – France, Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Spain, and the colonies of Latin America. • Increased focus on spreading Christianity.
Spain • Phillip II • 1554-1598, son of Charles V • Spanish Renaissance • Increase in Christian missionary activity to the New World • Spanish Inquisition • English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 Beginning of decline for Spanish Empire. • By the 1600’s, Spain is surpassed by England and France.
Cultural and Intellectual Developments • Scientific Revolution • Renaissance • Reformation • Enlightenment
Scientific Revolution • 1500’s • Life in the Middle Ages dominated by Church preaching salvation and preparing oneself for the afterlife. • Due to the teachings of the Renaissance and Reformation, people began to question traditional beliefs. • Copernicus – Heliocentric Theory • Galileo – Heliocentric Theory – Church trial in 1632 – forced to recant, placed under house arrest. • Scientific Method – Francis Bacon, Galileo, Kepler, Newton • Questions regarding the teachings of religion. • Atheism • Deism
Renaissance • 1400’s and 1500’s • Black Death Population decline New World Crops Population increased Urbanization Trade Study History Individual/Humanism Arts and Literature become the focus • Challenge to Medieval way of thinking, values. • Humanism – Greece and Rome • Arts – Da Vinci, Michelangelo • Italian Renaissance – Focus on art, individual • Northern Renaissance – Focus on literature, more religious than Italian. • Balance between focus on religion and enjoying this life.
Protestant Reformation • 1517 – 95 Theses – Martin Luther • Luther is against the selling of indulgences, wants to challenge the authority of the Pope. • Translates Bible into German. • Salvation should be achieved through faith. • Shatters Catholic unity of Europe. • Rise of Protestantism, Lutheran, Calvinism, Anglican branches. • Religious tension in Western Europe increases.
Catholic Counter Reformation • Designed to offset the challenges brought about by the Protestant Reformation. • Council of Trent (1545-1563) • Confirms the authority of the Pope on religious matters • Seeks to correct abuses of power and corruption • Forms the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) • Designed to spread the Catholic faith, this is particularly important in the new regions that are being taken over by the Europeans during this time period.
Enlightenment • 17th and 18th Century – France • Application of scientific method to issues of politics and government structures. • Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan – People need to be controlled by government. • John Locke – Two Treatises of Government – Natural Rights
Enlightenment • Begin to question motives of absolute rulers – Elizabeth I, Phillip II, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, Oliver Cromwell, etc. • Rousseau - Social Contract Theory – only the people of a nation have the legitimate right to govern – that right is then granted to a government. • Voltaire – Freedom of Speech, Religion • Montesquieu – Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances