Welcome • Please take a minute and answer one of the following questions. . . • Why did you become a high school teacher? • Why did you select to come to today’s session?
Why Teach Reading Strategies to High School Students? • Six million students in grades 6-12 are at risk of not graduating, or find themselves ill-prepared for college and career. • Thirty percent of U. S. students are not graduating from high school • 75% of students with literacy problems in third grade still experience literacy issues in ninth grade. • NAEP eighth and twelfth grade scores remain flat or have dropped since 1998.
Adolescent Literacy: A Critical Need • Not all students who read narrative text well can read and comprehend expository and non-fiction text (Snow, 2001) • American children are imperiled because they don’t read well enough, quickly enough, or easily enough to ensure comprehension in their content courses in middle and secondary schools (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998, p. 98) • About 33% of secondary students have withdrawn from active participation in class and are reading below grade level (Joyce, Hrycauk, & Calhoun, 2001)
Lexile Score • 25% of 11/12 graders read below 940 • 25% of 11/12 graders read above 1210 • Average high school text book is 1100-1300 • Medical Benefits Package 1250 • Tax Forms 1260 • New York Times 1380 • Entry Level Construction 1340 • Entry Level Law Enforcement/ Law 1740 • http://www.lexile.com/DesktopDefault.aspx?view=fa&tabindex=3&tabid=68 • http://www.daggett.com
KEY Elements Needed to Improve Adolescent Literacy Instructional Improvements • Direct, explicit comprehension instruction • Effective instructional principles embedded in content • Text-based collaborative learning • Motivation and self-directed learning • Strategic tutoring • Diverse texts • Intensive writing • A technology component • Ongoing formative assessment of students Infrastructure Improvements • Extended time for literacy • Professional development • Ongoing summative assessment of students and programs • Teacher teams • Leadership • A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program Biancarosa, G. & Snow, C. E. (2004) Reading Next- A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy: A Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York.Washington, DC: AEE
Why should I Teach Learning Strategies? • Reading Comprehension Improves • Academic Achievement Increases • Students (highest/ lowest achieving) Perform Better When: • Set goals for reading • Self-question as they read • Plan for reading assignment • Use aids to guide reading and comprehension • Instruction “across content areas,” Improves students’ use of learning strategies
Activate Prior Knowledge Understand and Set Purpose for Reading Choose Appropriate Comprehension Strategies Effective Readers(Before Reading)
Pre Reading Strategies • Read Around the Text • Anticipation Guide • Shared Reading Activity • KWL • Brainstorming Activity • What’s in a Picture • Cloze Practice • Question of the Day • Directed Reading/ Thinking Activity
Vocabulary • The competent reader must understand critical vocabulary terms found in the text. • Vocabulary must be explicitly taught.
Ask questions to set the purpose Discuss the title/ illustrations Make Predictions Make a list/ brainstorm word they might encounter/ predefine them. Shared Reading
What’s going on in this picture? Leads into Speakers, Writing Poetry, Newspaper Articles, Novel. What’s In a Picture
Cloze Procedure The body contains several systems that keep it functioning well. While all of these 1. ______ are critical to the 2.______ survival, we will discuss 3. ______ of them: the digestive 4. ______, the circulatory system, and 5.______ respiratory system. There are 6. ______ organs in the digestive 7. ______; the stomach, the small 8.______, and the liver. Their 9.______ purpose is to process 10.______ we all eat. However, 11.______bodies can only use 12.______ we eat the 13.______ system does its work 14.______ allowing enzymes and digestive 15.______to change the food 16.______ chemical forms that are 17.______ by the body. Then 18.______ food undergoes this chemical 19._______, it then moves to 20.______ bloodstream, and at this 21. ______ the circulatory system begins 22.______ important jog. (Omission of 2 paragraphs) This then, is a thumbnail sketch of three of the several systems that our body has. Each and every one of them is truly a miracle in operation. Skylight Professional Development, Reading and Writing in the content Area, p. 11, 2001
Personalize it! • At your table review the strategies we have discussed • On a piece of paper list three you believe you can incorporate in your class • Under each strategy list how the strategy will benefit the students.
During Reading Strategies Share a during reading strategy you use in class
Effective Readers (During Reading) • Focus Attention • Monitor comprehension • Use fix-up strategies • Use context clues • Use text structure • Organize and integrate new information.
During Reading Strategies • Use think-aloud • Sticky notes • X Marks the Spot • Data Chart • Graphic Organizers • QAR • Dialectal Journals • GIST Statements/ $2 Summary • Sketch to Stretch
Teachers model critical reading strategies Scaffold instruction Students internalize strategies to become strategic readers Explicit Instruction Explicit Instruction Modeling of Strategy by Teacher Shared Responsibility n Practice & Use of the Strategy by all Students Gradual Transition of Responsibility
X Marks the spot • X= Important • ?= Question • != Interesting
QAR (Question Answer Relationship) • The relationship between questions and their answers • Right There -- answer is found in the text. (who, what, when, where) • Think and Search -- answer is found in the text. However, the words in the question and the words in the answer are not found in the same sentence. The reader must put together different parts of the text to get the answer. (why, how, in what ways) • Author and Me (or Author and You) -- The answer is not found in the text. The reader has to put together the information the author provides to come up with the answer. (predict, if then) • On My Own (or On Your Own) -- The reader does not use the text at all to answer the question. The answer is based on the reader's opinions and experiences. (what do you think about, defend)
More on Questioning The Teacher.: • Asks very frequent questions • Poses a pre reading question and post reading question on a section • May have the students read the material more than one time, posing higher level question for subsequent reading • Teaches students to formulate questions using headings, subheadings, and initial sentences
Questioning. . . The Teacher: • Has students generate question on the material • Question are then used: • As focus of a discussion • As study vehicle with peer partner • Within a game format • To submit with answers as possible test items
Dialectical Journals/ Think Alongs • Paper divided into two columns • In the first column something important/ interesting from the text is noted • In the second, students respond by making a connection, agreeing, identifying a problem, or drawing a picture
GIST/ $2 Summary • Generating Interaction Schema with Text • Not to exceed 20 words • A basic summary of what has been read • Combine the GIST statements for a section/ chapter summary
Sketch to Stretch • Have students illustrate to remember. • Students draw in the box. • Students support drawing with a quote from the text. • Students explain their choice as to why it is important.
Paragraph Shrinking • Name the who or what • Tell the most important thing about the who or what • Say the main idea in 10 words or less
Which 3 strategies would you be able to incorporate in your class? • How would these benefit your students?
Reflect on what was read Summarize major ideas Seek additional information from outside sources Feel success is a result of effort Effective Readers(After Reading)
After Reading Strategies • Reading/ Writing Connection • I Search Paper • Ask the Expert/ Stump the Chump • RAFT • Graphic Organizers • Strategic Reading (Visualize, Question, Infer, Analyze/ Synthesize
I-Search • Student Selects Topic • Finding Information- generating questions • Using Information- taking notes, evaluating notes • Developing Final Product (Student records their action, thoughts, and feelings as they go. Also, they record what they used and when)
Graffiti Walls Wolf couldn't blow it Build a Solid Foundation Brick=Solid What takes time to build will endure Wolf blew down the straw and wood houses
Semantic Map Manifest Reasons For Reasons Against __________ _____________ __________ _____________ Final Outcomes
Vocabulary • Immersion in a print rich environment • Demonstration and modeling of word • Students actively involved in process • Use new words often and in multiple context • Integrated with the activation and development of Prior Knowledge
Vocabulary Strategies • Word Walls/ Graffiti Walls • Brainstorming/ 1, 2, 3 • Word Explanation • Word Sorts • Knowledge Rating • Concept of Definition Map • Semantic Map • Concept Circles • Word Analogies
Pharaoh Polytheism Survey Pyramids Nile River Irrigation Granaries Hieroglyphics Slaves Bureaucracy Number system obelisks Right angle Rosetta Stone Dynasty Sphinx Embalming Inclined plane Papyrus Amon-Ra Osiris Cuneiform Grain tax farmers Key Words from ancient Egypt
Word Explanation • Cap • Bacon • 8 Ball • 2 cents • 411
Concept of Definition Map A systematic and planned extermination of an entire ethnic, political, or religious group Moral Crime Purposeful Genocide Destructive Intentional Rwanda (1992) Nazi Holocaust (1933-1945) Bosnia (1992-1995)
A good teacher can influence even the most unpromising of students to the unique strength of his of her own mind. Lewis H. Lapham