Chapter 3 The Ancient Israelites
The Ancient Israelites Chapter Introduction Section 1 The First Israelites Section 2 The Kingdom of Israel Section 3 The Growth of Judaism Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
The Ancient Israelites Chapter Objectives • Describe the Israelites’ beliefs and their early history. • Discuss the history of the kingdom of Israel. • Discuss Judaism during the period when Jews were ruled by other people.
The Ancient Israelites Click the speaker button to play the audio.
The First Israelites Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the early history of the ancient Israelites, including their relationship with God, their escape from slavery, and their conflicts with the Canaanites over land.
The First Israelites Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • The Israelites believed in one God who set down moral laws for his people. They recorded their history in the Bible. • The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to return to their promised land.
The First Israelites Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Canaan (KAY·nuhn) • Mount Sinai (SY·NY) Meeting People • Abraham • Deborah • Jacob • Phoenician (fih·NEE·shuhn) • Moses
The First Israelites Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • monotheism (MAH·nuh·thee·IH·zuhm) • tribe • Torah (TOHR·UH) • covenant (KUHV·nuhnt) • alphabet
The First Israelites Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing Information Create a sequence chart to help trace the movement of the Israelites.
The First Israelites The Early Israelites • The Israelites built a kingdom in Canaan, along the Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia, in 1000 B.C. • Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan occupy the land that was once Canaan. • Israelites believed in one God. • The belief in one god is called monotheism. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • The Israelite faith became the religion of Judaism. • Judaism influenced Christianity and Islam and helped shape the beliefs of European and American societies. • Israelites spoke Hebrew and wrote their history and beliefs in what later became the Hebrew Bible. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • The Israelites believed they were descended from a man named Abraham. • The Israelites believed God told Abraham to settle in Canaan and worship the one true God. • Abraham’s grandson, named Jacob, raised 12 sons in Canaan. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • Their families became the 12 tribes of Israel. • After 100 years in Canaan, the Israelites suffered a long drought. • To survive the Israelites went to Egypt. • The Egyptian pharaoh enslaved the Israelites. • To prevent the Israelites from rebelling, the pharaoh ordered all baby boys to be thrown into the Nile River. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • The pharaoh’s daughter found a baby boy in a basket on the riverbank. • She named the baby Moses. • When Moses grew up, he herded sheep in the hills outside Egypt. • In those hills, he saw a burning bush and heard a voice. • He believed it was God telling him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • The Bible says that God sent 10 plagues to trouble Egypt. • The last plague killed all the first-born children, except for those Israelites who marked their doors with lamb’s blood. • The plague convinced the pharaoh to let the Israelites leave Egypt. • After the Israelites left, the pharaoh changed his mind. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • He sent soldiers after the Israelites. • The Bible says that God parted the Red Sea, so the Israelites could pass. • The water flowed back when the soldiers tried to cross, and they drowned. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites The Early Israelites (cont.) • On the way back to Canaan, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai and received laws from God. • These laws were known as the Torah, which became the first part of the Hebrew Bible. • The Ten Commandments—what God believes to be right and wrong—are the most important part of the Torah. • The Ten Commandments helped form the basic moral laws of many nations. (pages 81–83)
The First Israelites What promise did god make in the covenant with the Israelites? God promised to return the Israelites to Canaan if they followed the laws of the Torah.
The First Israelites The Promised Land • It took the Israelites about 40 years to reach Canaan. • Along the way, Moses died, and Joshua took over. • When the Israelites reached Canaan, they found a group of people, the Canaanites, living there. • The Israelites believed it was God’s will to conquer the Canaanites. (pages 84–85)
The First Israelites The Promised Land (cont.) • Joshua led the Israelites into battle. • They marched around the walls of the city of Jericho for six days. • On the seventh day, the Israelites let out a great shout, and the wall of Jericho crumbled. (pages 84–85)
The First Israelites The Promised Land (cont.) • Joshua led the Israelites in three more wars. • The land they seized was divided among the 12 tribes. • After Joshua’s death, the Israelites looked to judges for leadership. • Judges were usually military leaders who led one or two tribes. (pages 84–85)
The First Israelites The Promised Land (cont.) • Eventually, the Israelites won the hilly region of Canaan, and the Canaanites kept the coastal areas. • The Israelites built walled towns to protect themselves. • The Phoenicians were a group of Canaanites who developed and alphabet. • An alphabet is a group of letters that stands for sounds. (pages 84–85)
The First Israelites How did the Phoenicians affect other cultures of the world? The Phoenicians passed on their alphabet to the Greeks and Romans. This alphabet is the basis for most Western alphabets of today.
The First Israelites Why was the religion of Israel unique in the ancient world? Unlike most other religions, it had only one God.
The First Israelites What it the Torah, and how did the Israelites obtain it? The Torah is the collection of laws which God gave to Moses on top of Mount Sinai.
The First Israelites Analyze What was the importance of the Phoenician alphabet? It made writing simpler and helped in keeping records.
The First Israelites Summarize What problems did the Israelites face when they returned to Canaan? The Israelites had to fight a number of wars to get back part of the lands of Canaan from the Canaanites who lived there.
The First Israelites Expository Writing Which one of the Ten commandments do you think is most important today? Write a short essay to explain your selection. Answers will vary.
The Nile Valley Explain the most important contribution made by the Israelites.
The Kingdom of Israel Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section focuses on the creation of the kingdom of Israel; its great kings Saul, David, and Solomon; and the challenges Israel faced.
The Kingdom of Israel Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • The Israelites chose a king to unite them against their enemies. • King David built an Israelite empire and made Jerusalem his capital city. • The Israelites were conquered and forced to leave Israel and Judah.
The Kingdom of Israel Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Jerusalem (juh·ROO·suh·luhm) • Judah (JOO·duh) Meeting People • Philistine (FIH·luh·STEEN) • David • Solomon (SAHL·uh·muhn) • Saul (SAWL) • Nebuchadnezzar (NEH·byuh·kuhd·NUH·zuhr)
The Kingdom of Israel Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • prophet (PRAH·fuht) • empire (EHM·PYR) • tribute (TRIH·byoot) • proverb (PRAH·VUHRB)
The Kingdom of Israel Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing Information Complete a chart like the one on page 86 of your textbook, identifying characteristics of Israel and Judah.
The Kingdom of Israel The Israelites Choose a King • The Philistines were the strongest people in Canaan around 1000 B.C. • The Israelites feared the Philistines, so they copied their ways and worshiped their gods. • To keep from quarreling among themselves and to save their religion, the 12 tribes asked Samuel, a prophet, to choose a king. (page 87)
The Kingdom of Israel The Israelites Choose a King (cont.) • A prophet is a person who claims to be instructed by God. • Samuel warned the Israelites against a king and did not choose one. • The Israelites named Saul king. • King Saul displeased God, so God chose another king, David. (page 87)
The Kingdom of Israel The Israelites Choose a King (cont.) • God told Samuel to anoint David in secret. (page 87)
The Kingdom of Israel Why did Samuel refuse to choose a king? Samuel told the Israelites that a king would enslave them and make them pay taxes.
The Kingdom of Israel David and Solomon • David was a famous warrior. • He killed a giant Philistine named Goliath with a slingshot and stones. • King Saul put David in charge of the army but later grew envious of David and plotted to have him killed. • David hid until Saul and his sons were killed. • Then, David took the throne. (pages 89–90)
The Kingdom of Israel David and Solomon (cont.) • David drove the Philistines out and conquered other countries, building his empire. • The conquered people had to pay tribute to David. • The Israelites also had to pay heavy taxes. • David used the money to expand his capital, Jerusalem. (pages 89–90)
The Kingdom of Israel David and Solomon (cont.) • Solomon was David’s son who took the throne after David’s death. • Solomon built the stone temple in Jerusalem that David wanted to build. (pages 89–90)
The Kingdom of Israel David and Solomon (cont.) • When Solomon died, the 12 tribes began fighting. • Ten of the tribes moved to the north and called their nation the kingdom of Israel. • The other two tribes moved to the south and called their kingdom Judah. • The capital of Judah was Jerusalem, and the people of Jerusalem were called Jews. (pages 89–90)
The Kingdom of Israel Why did David want to build a temple in Jerusalem? David wanted the Israelites to have a permanent place for their sacred religious objects.
The Kingdom of Israel A Troubled Time • After creating the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, many Israelites forgot their religion. • The prophets told the Israelites to return to God’s laws to create a just society. • The kingdoms of Israel and Judah felt threatened by the Assyrians and Chaldeans, who had powerful empires in southwest Asia. (pages 90–92)
The Kingdom of Israel A Troubled Time (cont.) • The Assyrians conquered Israel and dispersed the 10 tribes throughout their empire. • These Israelites lost their religion and were often called the lost tribes of Israel. • The Assyrians settled around Samaria and were called Samaritans. • The Samaritans thought God would be angry with them for taking the Israelites’ land. (pages 90–92)
The Kingdom of Israel A Troubled Time (cont.) • To appease God, they offered sacrifices and began following the Israelites’ religion. • The people of Judah believed that God only accepted sacrifices from the temple at Jerusalem. • They believed they were God’s only people. • The Egyptians conquered the kingdom of Judah in 620 B.C. (pages 90–92)
The Kingdom of Israel A Troubled Time (cont.) • The Chaldeans conquered Egypt in 605 B.C. • The Jews joined forces with the Egyptians to conquer the Chaldeans. • King Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem and punished the Jews. • He sent 10,000 Jews to Babylon and appointed a new Jewish king. (pages 90–92)
The Kingdom of Israel A Troubled Time (cont.) • In 586 B.C., the Jews revolted against the Chaldeans, and the Chaldean ruler crushed Jerusalem. • The Chaldeans took the king and thousands of Jews to Babylon. • This period is known as the Babylonian Captivity. (pages 90–92)