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Cold War. 1945-1957. The Cold War. What is it? A passive aggressive confrontation between Superpowers. (U.S.A. vs. U.S.S.R.) Not a direct confrontation (No bombs) A battle of diplomacy, propaganda, and nerves. Roots of Cold War. Yalta Conference , 1945:

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cold war

Cold War

1945-1957

the cold war
The Cold War
  • What is it?
    • A passive aggressive confrontation between Superpowers. (U.S.A. vs. U.S.S.R.)
    • Not a direct confrontation (No bombs)
    • A battle of diplomacy, propaganda, and nerves.
roots of cold war
Roots of Cold War
  • Yalta Conference, 1945:
  • Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in E. Europe (but later reneged)
  • Germany would be divided into four zones controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR
  • Potsdam Conference, 1945:
  • Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe but Stalin refused
  • Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against future war
roots of cold war1
Roots of Cold War
  • U.S. point of view:
  • Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres" of influence in Eastern Europe
  • Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech in 1946 alerted Americans to a future conflict
  • U.S. wanted democracy spread throughout the world
roots of cold war2
Roots of Cold War
  • Soviet point of view:
  • Democracies traditionally hostile towards communism
  • US & Britain did not open western front in Europe early enough; millions of Soviet soldiers were dying fighting the Nazi armies alone until mid-1944.
  • The US and Britain froze Russia out of the atomic bomb project.
  • US terminated lend-lease to Moscow in May 1945 but gave Britain aid until 1946.
  • Wanted "buffer zone" for the Soviet western border esp. in Poland
partition of germany
Partition of Germany
  • USSR, U.S., Britain & France would each occupy a part of Germany but would allow for German reunification once it was no longer a threat.
  • Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR in form of agricultural and industrial goods.
  • Did not want revitalized Germany that could once again pose a threat.
  • Stripped E. Germany of much of its resources.
slide8

Germany is Divided into Four Zones

  • Berlin is also divided into zones.
  • West Berlin – Allies
  • East Berlin - Soviets
  • The U.S.S.R. promises free elections in East Europe – Not True
u s s r seized eastern europe
U.S.S.R. Seized Eastern Europe
  • Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Yugoslavia, East Germany, Rumania Albania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia.
eastern countries
Eastern Countries
  • Become Satellite countries to the U.S.S.R.
    • Independent, but under U.S.S.R. control.
    • U.S.S.R. tightens borders, no free elections, people can’t leave. total control.
containment
"Containment"
  • By 1947, Truman pledged to prevent further spread of communism
  • Truman Doctrine, People around the world have the right to be free, & U.S.A. will support them.
  • 1947: U.S. gave aid to Greece and Turkey to defeat communist forces there.

President Harry Truman

marshall plan
Marshall Plan
  • 1947: Massive aid package to help war-torn Europe
  • Purpose: prevent communism from spreading
  • Result: Western and Central Europe recovered
  • Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in eastern Europe

http://www.historicaldocuments.com/MarshallPlanPhoto.jpg

berlin airlift 1948
Berlin Airlift (1948)
  • Berlin deep inside E. Germany
  • U.S.S.R. blockades West Berlin.
  • The Berlin Blockade lasted 318 days. During this time, 275,000 planes transported 1.5 million tons of supplies and a plane landed every three minutes at Berlin’s airport.
  • blockade ended in May 1949.
nato north atlantic treaty organization
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
  • 1949 U.S.A., Canada, England, Iceland, 8 more.
  • Join/agree to defend each other.
  • Allows Europe to “Shoulder” some of Cold War responsibilities.
warsaw pact
Warsaw Pact
  • U.S.S.R. response to NATO.
  • Soviet Union & East European powers join to oppose NATO.
  • 1955
korean war 1950 1953
Korean War 1950-1953
  • After WWII, Korea divided at 38th parallel: North was communist, South was not
  • Cause: 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea (supported by Soviet resources)
  • UN (led by US & Gen. Douglas MacArthur) sent forces to push back communists
  • China sent thousands of troops to push back UN
  • Result: cease-fire and border at 38th parallel restored; still in existence today

http://www.awm.gov.au/korea/maps/images/establishing.gif

space race
Space Race
  • (Part of Cold War competition to achieve technological superiority)
  • 1957, USSR launched Sputnik, an orbiting satellite using long-range rockets
  • US is fearful Soviets could now launch a nuclear missile into space and then down to U.S.
  • Resulted in development of ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)
space race1
Space Race
  • U.S. countered with creation of NASA and vastly increased educational funding for science.
  • 1961, Soviets sent world’s first cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, into orbit.
  • President John F. Kennedy responded by increasing funds for space.
  • 1969, Apollo Program put first man on the moon; 4 more moon landings followed by 1972.
u 2 incident
U-2 Incident
  • U.S. spy plane shot down over USSR
  • Khrushchev demanded an apology from Eisenhower; Eisenhower refused