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Drill. February 3 rd , 2013 What are three (3) purposes for which living room furniture may be arranged? What is a concept sketch ?. Applications of Technology. Ordering Principles. Architecture. What is Architecture?. Architecture is the art , science, and pr ofession of

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February 3rd, 2013

  • What are three (3) purposes for which living room furniture may be arranged?

  • What is a concept sketch?

Applications of technology

Applications of Technology

Ordering Principles


What is Architecture?

  • Architecture is the art, science, and profession of

  • planning, designing, and supervising the

  • construction of new buildings, landscapes,

  • communities, and furnishings in their totality,

  • examiningtheir environment in accordance with

  • the principles of utility, strength, and aesthetics.

What are some of the principles of aesthetics
What are some of the Principles of Aesthetics?

Architecture is composed of many ordering elements

that effect how a building is designed and how people

experience spaces within buildings.

  • Forms and spaces of a building may be created based

  • on a geometric basis. The forms and spaces of any

  • building should acknowledge:

  • The hierarchy ingrained in the

  • functions they contain

  • The users they serve

  • The purposes or meaning they

  • convey

  • The scope or context

  • they address

What are some of the principles of aesthetics1
What are some of the Principles of Aesthetics?

The following are principles used as visual devices to

allow the diverse forms of a building to coexist

perceptually and conceptually within an ordered,

unified, and harmonious whole:

  • Transformation

  • Hierarchy

  • Axis

  • Rhythm

  • Symmetry

  • Datum


  • Transformation is an architectural concept, structure, or

  • organization that can be altered through a series of discrete

  • manipulations and permutations in response to a specific context

  • or set of conditions without a loss of identity or concept.

  • abc

  • acb

  • Permutation: changing the order of

  • elements arranged in a particular

  • order

  • bac

  • cab


Ward Willets House by Frank Lloyd Wright is an example of the

transformation of the Cruciform Plan.


The Thomas Hardy House is another example of transforming

the Cruciform Plan.

Transformation of form
Transformation of Form

Subtractive: subtracting portions

of a volume. Form may retain

identity or become a new form.

House at Stabio, Mario Botta


Gwathmey Residence

Amagensett, New York

Transformation of form1
Transformation of Form

Additive: addition of elements

to a volume. How elements are

added and the number and size

of elements determine if the

original form retains its identity.

  • Il Redentore; Andrea Palladio

  • Venice, Italy

Villa Rotunda, Palladio

Vicenza, Italy

Transformation of form2
Transformation of Form

Dimensional: altering one or more

of a solids dimensions. The solid

may be compressed or stretched.

Transformation of other

types of solids

Unite d’Habitation, Le Corbusier

Firminy-Vert, France

Collisions of geometry
Collisions of Geometry

Two forms of differing geometry may collideand interpenetrate

each other’s boundaries. Each form will compete for visual


Rotated Grid

Circle and Square

Chancellery Building, French Embassy

Le Corbusier

St. Marks Tower

Frank Lloyd Wright

Axis symmetry datum
Axis, Symmetry, & Datum

An axisis a line established by two pointsin spaceabout which

forms and spaces can be arranged in a symmetrical or

balanced manner.

  • Symmetry: balanced distribution

  • of equivalent forms/spaces on

  • opposite sides of a dividing line or

  • plane, or about a center or axis

  • Datum: line, plane, or volume that

  • by its continuity and regularity

  • serves to gather, measure, and

  • organize a pattern of forms and

  • spaces

Axis symmetry datum1
Axis, Symmetry, & Datum

An axis has a beginning and end point, induces movement, and

promotes views along the path. The idea of axis may be reinforced

by defining edges along the length.

Teotihuacan (City of the Gods, Mexico

Pyramids of the Sun & Moon, Avenue of

the Dead, citadel, and market.

Axis symmetry datum2
Axis, Symmetry, & Datum

Bilateral symmetry: one plane dividing the

whole arrangement into identical halves

Radial symmetry: similar halves at any angle

Around a centerpoint or along a central axis

Villa Rotunda, Palladio

Vicenza, Italy

Monticello, Thomas Jefferson

Charlottesville, VA

Axis symmetry datum3
Axis, Symmetry, & Datum

It is hard to detect the notes and relative pitches of the music

above without a staff.

The staff is used as a datum to organize the spacing of notes and

to accentuate the difference between a series of notes.

Axis symmetry datum4
Axis, Symmetry, & Datum

A volume can collect the pattern of elements

within its boundary.

Phillip Exeter Academy Library

  • Louis Kahn

  • Exeter, New Hampshire

Axis symmetry datum5
Axis, Symmetry, & Datum

A plane may gather elements or serve

as a background for the encompassing

elements and frame them in its field.

Rhythm and repetition
Rhythm and Repetition

Rhythm: unifying movement characterized

by patterned repetition/alteration of

forms/shapes in the same or modified form.

Structural patterns incorporate repetition.

Rhythm can be witnessed in the arrangement of

rooms in this apartment building.

  • Unite d’Habitation

  • Le Corbusier

Rhythm and repetition1
Rhythm and Repetition

In the case of the Sydney Opera house, we witness reverberating

patterns. The Victorian houses show multiple rhythms laid over

one another in the façade of a building.

Sydney Opera House, John Utzon

  • Sydney, Australia

Victorian Houses

San Fransisco, California


Hierarchy: articulating the importance of a

form/space by its size, shape, or placement

relative to other shapes/forms of the


Hierarchy by Size

Hierarchy by Shape

Hierarchy by Placement


  • Catherdral

  • dominates urban

  • landscape in

  • Florence, Italy

Legislative Assembly


Le Corbusier

Punjab, India

Olivetti Training School

James Stiling

Haslemere, England