Drill • During what time period did Architecture come into existence? • What were the two (2) factors that contributed to the beginning of Architecture?
Jack of all trades, master of ALL. The Master Builder
The beginning of Architecture • The first evidence of Architecture can be traced back to Ancient Egypt with the building of the pyramids: magnificent structures for the dead. • What material was used in pyramid construction? • Stone
The material of choice • Stone was the most readily available material at the time but it was used because of it’s • ability to reflect light • Space cannot be conceived without light
Ancient Egypt • Valley of the Kings • The Great Pyramid - Kheops
Prestige of the Architect • Pharaohs commissioned chief builders to design, engineer, and construct pyramids, palaces, and other buildings. The architect gained prestige, making them highly respected in society. The chief builder maintained this prestige from Ancient Egypt thru Ancient Greece and Rome, and up until the Renaissance.
Ancient Greece and Rome • Parthenon - Athens, Greece • Roman Coliseum • Buildings began to gain status as well becoming symbols of permanence and stability.
The Renaissance • What was the Renaissance? • The Renaissance was the point in time ( starting in 1420) where people tried to revive Classical Civilization (Ancient Greece & Rome). • Architects of this period studied the designs, construction techniques, and philosophies of Ancient Greece and Rome. • There was a preoccupation with geometric figures and proportional systems.
The Renaissance • Palladio’s Villa Rotunda • Da Vinci using the proportions of the human being
A shift in thinking • Architect’s still held much prestige and were commissioned by the church and the state. The church was all powerful during Medieval times but people started to lose faith in the church based on events such as • The bubonic plague: epidemic spread by rats • King Henry VIII being excommunicated from the church: the split of church and state
The Individual & Rationalism • We begin to see more of an emphasis on the individual. People began to rely on rationalism: • Belief that truth is discovered through reason and logic • Studying nature to create laws governing human behavior • PHILOSOPHY
Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution began in England. People began working for a profit. The major change during this time was innovation in materials: • Iron and Glass: cheaper than stone • Builders used their newly found belief in logic and reason to deduce that they could build the same buildings with a lower material cost. • TECHNOLOGY
Split of Responsibilities Master Builder Architecture More concerned with managing firms Providing services Liaison between client and Performance based on reasonable care Representative of Client (similar to a lawyer) Construction Physically carry out construction Determine cost to build Contractors Performance based, no fault standard Manage subcontractors in process of building Engineering Specify how things should be built based on math (calculations) and science (physics, chemistry, etc.) At the forefront of innovations in building material technology