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CUIN 6371 Models of Teaching. Fall, 2003 Howard L. Jones Session 3 Group Investigation Cooperative Learning. Social Interaction. Teaching About Society Jurisprudential Oliver and Shaver Role Playing/Simulations Teaching Social Skills National Training Laboratory

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CUIN 6371Models of Teaching

Fall, 2003

Howard L. Jones

Session 3

Group Investigation

Cooperative Learning


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Social Interaction

  • Teaching About Society

    • Jurisprudential Oliver and Shaver

    • Role Playing/Simulations

  • Teaching Social Skills

    • National Training Laboratory

  • Teaching Academic Content

    & Social Skills

    • Various Forms of Cooperative Learning

    • Including Group Investigation


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Where Did They Come From?

Original Theory/Philosophy

Application of Original Theory

Model of Teaching


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“…if anything is genetically-driven, it’s a social instinct. If it weren’t for each other, we wouldn’t know who we are.”

Herbert Thelen to

Bruce Joyce


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Synergy instinct. If it weren’t for each other, we wouldn’t know who we are.”

To work together


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Assumptions Behind Group Strategies instinct. If it weren’t for each other, we wouldn’t know who we are.”

  • Synergy in cooperative settings produces positive energy – “positive interdependence”

  • Group members learn from each other

  • Greater intellectual activity is a result

  • Positive views of other people emerge; alienation is reduced

  • Self-esteem increases

  • General social skills emerge


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Life in the classroom is a series of “inquiries” instinct. If it weren’t for each other, we wouldn’t know who we are.”

Herbert Thelen


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The National Geographic Society instinct. If it weren’t for each other, we wouldn’t know who we are.”

Presents….


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Remember, only those states west of the Mississippi instinct. If it weren’t for each other, we wouldn’t know who we are.”


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…students can become quite expert at analyzing group dynamics and learning to create group climates that foster mutuality and collective responsibility.

Models of Teaching, pp. 37-38


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Johari Window dynamics and learning to create group climates that foster mutuality and collective responsibility.

Known to Unknown to

Self Self

Arena

Blindspot

Blindspot

Known

to Others

Unknown

to Others

Unknown

Private


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Syntax of NTL Model dynamics and learning to create group climates that foster mutuality and collective responsibility.

Dilemma

Invention

Feedback

Generalization


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Syntax of NTL Model dynamics and learning to create group climates that foster mutuality and collective responsibility.

An Inquiry

Invention

Feedback

Generalization


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…cooperative learning increases learning partly because it causes motivational orientation to move from the external to the internal. When students cooperate over learning tasks, they become more interested in learning for its own sake rather than for external rewards.

Shlomo Sharon



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Remember…focus on the function of the the causes entire room, not just the individual artifacts!



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One should not attempt to teach knowledge from any academic area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.

Herbert Thelen


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Instructional area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.

Effective group process and governance

Discipline of collaborative inquiry

Constructivist view of knowledge

Nurturant

Independence as learners

Respect for dignity of all

Social inquiry as a way of life

Interpersonal warmth and affiliation

Group Investigation Outcomes


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Syntax of Group Investigation Model area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.

An Inquiry

Construction

Feedback

Generalization


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Constructivism area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.


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Traditional Classrooms area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.

Curriculum is presented part to whole; emphasis on basic skills

Strict adherence to fixed curriculum

Activities rely heavily on text and workbook

Students viewed as “blank slates”

Teachers generally behave in didactic manner, disseminating information to learners

Constructivist Classrooms

Curriculum is presented whole to part with emphasis on big concepts

Pursuit of student questions is highly valued

Activities rely heavily on primary sources of data and manipulative materials

Students are viewed as thinkers with emerging theories about the world

Teachers generally behave in an interactive manner, mediating the environment for students

School Environments


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Constructing Dewey and Vygotsky area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.


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Key Questions area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.

What Would School Be Like If What’s-His-Name Ran The World ...  

1. What is the purpose of schooling?

2. What is the role of the teacher? What skills would be most of value to the teacher in his/her efforts?

3. What is the nature of the curriculum? What subjects are valued? Not valued? 

4. How are schools related to society?  

5. What is “truth” for X? How would he suggest that we, as educators, assist our students in finding truth?


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Dewey area without teaching the social process by which it was negotiated.

Enlarge child’s experience

Educate the individual through social

Promote socialization

Community aspect of education

Continuity with past/present

Learn instinctively through social interaction

Vygotsky

Challenge students to integrate new concepts with old through cultural and social experiences

Provide a scaffold or support system through which children can develop both personal and social skills

Combination of affective and intellectual skills

Zone of Proximal Development -

1. What is the purpose of schooling?


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Transmit knowledge to next generation – as a facilitator, moderator; guide by the side

Jiffy lube

Three step deal;

Adult or peer with greater knowledge as leader; teacher provides opportunities for learning in social interaction

Child/Adult cooperation

Child independently

Teacher challenges the student with work that fits into ZPD

2. What is the role of the teacher? What skills would be most of value to the teacher in his/her efforts?


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Any subject as long as the student valued it and is relate to the real world

Those that are not related to the real world - abstract

Social interaction building on concepts in curriculum – “build upon”

Play is important

One subject not valued over another

Curriculum will change according to the developmental level of the student

Program of inquiry

3. What is the nature of the curriculum? What subjects are valued? Not valued? 


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Place for social interaction to happen to the real world

Schools represent the larger society

“School is not preparation for life; school IS life.”

Social aspects – interaction; intersubjectivity

Social development and thinking ability are related

Medium through which students can advance their social skills +

Training ground for society and a mini-society

4. How are schools related to society?


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Real life experiences to the real world

Problem

“It works!”

Truth is a process

Truth? How get there?


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Models that emphasize democratic process assume that the outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.


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Teacher’s role…. outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

Counselor, consultant, and friendly critic…teacher must “read” the students’ social and academic behavior and provide assistance that keeps the inquiry moving without squelching it


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The Constructivist Teacher outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.(Brooks & Brooks, 1993, 1997)

  • Encourage/accept student autonomy and initiative

  • Use primary sources, manipulative, interactive materials

  • Focus on “classify,” “analyze,” “predict,” “create”

  • Allow student responses to drive lessons (teachable moment)

  • Determine students’ understandings before sharing own

  • Encourage student dialogue, inquiry, and elaboration

  • Engage students in contradictory ideas

  • Allow wait time

  • Provide time for students to construct relationships and metaphors


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The Democratic Classroom outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

National Training Laboratory

Group Investigation

Herbert Thelen

Cooperative Learning

Kagan, Johnson, Slavin, Sharan


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Cooperative Learning outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

Spencer David & Roger Robert Shlomo

Kagan Johnson Slavin Sharan

Individual Accountability and Group Rewards


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“Constructivist”Models outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

Group Investigation

“Mastery” Models

Student-Teams-Achievement-Divisions (STAD)

Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT)

Cooperative Learning Types


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Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

  • Teach

  • Team Study

  • Testing

  • Team Recognition


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Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

  • Teach

  • Team Study

  • Tournament

  • Team Recognition


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Prime Time outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

Prime Time


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“Constructivist”Models outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

Group Investigation

Jigsaw II

“Mastery” Models

Student-Teams-Achievement-Divisions (STAD)

Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT)

Cooperative Learning Types


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Jigsaw II outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

  • Multifaceted Topic

  • Expert Teams Meet and Study

  • Experts teach Home Teams

  • Testing

  • Team Recognition


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The outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.role of education…improving the capacity of individuals to reflect on the ways they handle information..on their concepts, their beliefs, their values…A society of reflective thinkers would be capable of improving itself and preserving the uniqueness of individuals. Intellectual development and skill in social process are inextricably related.

Hullfish & Smith, 1961


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Reasons for Using Cooperative Learning outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

• Subject matter knowledge is increased

• Students value shared academic work

• Students can regulate their own resources

• An individual’s work pace can be more flexible

• Students learn to manage others’ resources and coordinate work with others

• Challenging tasks are more approachable or do-able because of shared

expertise …


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Reasons for Using Cooperative Learning outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

• School tasks are similar to those outside of school

• Group members serve as models for one another

• Students develop an expanded understanding of self and others

• The awareness of variability in aptitude may allow students to be more creative, to view errors as acceptable, and to learn from failure.


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Reasons for NOT Using outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.Cooperative Learning

• Students’ misconceptions are reinforced

• Students simply shift dependency from teacher to peers

• Students often value products more than process; speed often takes precedence over problem solving

• Some group situations present little more than an opportunity for high-achieving students to perform for other students

• In some situations high-achieving students may feel excessive pressure to do all of the work

• Some students learn that they need not contribute and may consistently receive feedback suggesting that their input is not valued


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Next time… outcome of any educational experiences is not completely predictable.

  • Inductive/Deductive …and

  • Concept Attainment