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Models of Teaching. EDTC 6341 Student-Centered Learning. Models of Teaching are really…. Models of learning Most important role of teacher is to teach students how to learn as they: Acquire information Ideas Skills Values Ways of thinking Means of expressing themselves

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models of teaching

Models of Teaching

EDTC 6341 Student-Centered Learning

models of teaching are really
Models of Teaching are really…
  • Models of learning
    • Most important role of teacher is to teach students how to learn as they:
      • Acquire information
      • Ideas
      • Skills
      • Values
      • Ways of thinking
      • Means of expressing themselves

Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2000). Models of teaching. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, pp. 6-7.

according to john goodlad
According to John Goodlad…
  • Elementary teachers use 3-4 strategies almost exclusively;
  • Secondary teachers: 1 or 2 strategies

in A Place Called School

what do you think

What do you think…

the most common strategy is?

renner calls it the guided tour approach
Renner calls it The “Guided Tour” Approach

The role of educator is “to pass on mastery over content as the content is envisaged by the teacher…much as a tour guide points out sights and the [learner] is discouraged from taking any detour” (Sunal, n.d., ¶ 1).

in which the role of teaching is
In which the role of teaching is:
  • Providing Information
  • Verification of information
  • Application of Information

Sunal, D. W. (n.d.). The learning cycle: A comparison of models of strategies for conceptual reconstruction: A review of the literature. Retrieved January 19, 2008, from http://astlc.ua.edu/ScienceInElem&MiddleSchool/565LearningCycle-ComparingModels.htm

john goodlad states not enough
John Goodlad states NOT ENOUGH
  • In “Schools for All Seasons”, Goodlad states:
    • Schools must provide rich sensory stimulation
    • Organized around
      • “the kinesthetic,
      • the aesthetic,
      • the social,
      • the linguistic,
      • the mathematical, and so on”
    • Thus, right or left brain does not matter
  • Not an easy task and it runs counter to prevailing high-stakes test environment
slide8
“The unit of selection designed to involve everyone in the class over a period of weeks, with accompanying teacher observation and diagnosis of individual learners, has largely disappeared from our schools, in part because it is associated in the public mind with "progressive education" and in part because it demands great pedagogical skill.”

Goodlad, J. (1998). Schools for all seasons. Phi Delta Kappan79(9), pp. 670-671.

the guided tour approach to teaching magnetism
The “Guided Tour” Approach to TeachingMagnetism

Teacher Writes Rule/Generalization on Board

Teacher Explains All Words; Ensures Student Understanding

Teacher Asks Students for Examples

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

according to john goodlad1
According to John Goodlad…
  • Elementary teachers use 3-4 strategies almost exclusively;
  • Secondary teachers: 1 or 2 strategies

in A Place Called School

what can we do differently

What can we do differently

As MTTs and/or leaders to enact change?

a model of teaching includes
* Instructional Strategies

Lecturing

Small group work

Laboratory activities

Role Playing

Drill/Practice/Recitation

Problem-Oriented Instruction ...

Simulations, etc.

* Belief

Systems

- How do people learn?

- What should the educational environment do?

A Model of Teaching includes:
models we will be using
Models we will be using
  • Inductive Learning (Hilda Taba)
  • Concept Attainment (Jerome Bruner)
  • Deductive Learning
  • Advance Organizers (David Ausubel)
  • Group Investigation Model
  • Cooperative Learning
a study of thinking
A Study of Thinking

People can – and do – determine why it is that they came up with solutions to problems and why it is that some stimulus affects them accordingly!

People differ in the way that they do this!

how would you classify the following
How would you classify the following?
  • Think about how you would categorize the individuals in the next slide
  • Type your categories using text chat…
slide18

Left to their own devices….

Humans will categorize and act upon the attributes of the categories…categorization is a form of invention

There are over 7 million discriminable colors alone …how many of you know the names of all 7 million? 1 million?

think about thinking
Think about thinking…
  • What mental processes did you go through to decide whether there was a color missing?
  • How did you categorize the colors?
and these categories are
And these categories are

Concepts – We group objects and events and people around us into classes … responding to class membership rather than uniquenesses

different ways to categorize
Different ways to categorize

Affective

Functional

Formal

what categories
What categories?

Affective, functional, formal

bruner
Bruner…
  • ..the true act of discovery is not a random event….it involves an expectation of finding – discovering -regularities and relationships in the environment
  • Problem solving with structured searching is the key to discovery learning
humans are different in the ways that they conceptualize
Humans are different in the ways that they conceptualize…

Scanners – select one aspect of a problem and assume it is correct until new data say otherwise

Focusers – look at totality and generate a theory and keep re-assessing as new data become available.

slide26

As a teacher, you know a concept that students should “have”…

How get it “across” to students?

slide27

Inductive Teaching

  • Teacher Gives Students Magnets
  • Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets
  • Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
  • Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
  • Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets
  • Students Verify Predictions
elements of a concept jerome bruner
Elements of a ConceptJerome Bruner

Every Concept has

1. A name

2. Examples and Non-Examples

(positives and negatives)

3. Attributes

4. Attribute Values

(essential and non-essential)

A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential attributes of the concept

slide29

Multiple Paths to Learning

  • Teacher Gives Students Magnets
  • Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets
  • Students Generate a Rule/Generalization
  • Teacher Gives Students Other Materials
  • Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets
  • Students Verify Predictions
elements of a concept jerome bruner1
Elements of a ConceptJerome Bruner

Every Concept has

1. A name

2. Examples and Non-Examples

(positives and negatives)

3. Attributes

4. Attribute Values

(essential and non-essential)

A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential attributes of the concept

slide31

Field TheoryBehavior is a Function ofPerson ......................Environment

B = f (P, E)

Kurt Lewin

inductive teaching
Inductive Teaching

Big Idea

Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas

Small Ideas Small Ideas

understanding a concept means knowing all of these elements
UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT MEANS KNOWING ALL OF THESE ELEMENTS

1. A name

2. Examples and Non-Examples

(positives and negatives)

3. Attributes

4. Attribute Values

(essential and non-essential)

A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential attributes of the concept

deductive inductive
Teacher Writes Rule on Board

Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness

Teacher Asks Students For Examples

Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Teacher Gives Students Magnets

Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets

Students Generate a Rule/Generalization

Teacher Gives Students Other Materials

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Deductive Inductive
conditions of learning concepts after robert gagne
External

Presentation of examples representative of the concept

Instructions to elicit a common link

Verification of concept

Reinforcement

REPETITION?

Internal

Discriminate between examples and non-examples

Conditions of Learning Concepts(after Robert Gagne’)
find the pattern
Find the Pattern

CircumferenceDiameter

11 cm 3.5 cm

56 inches 17.8 inches

4 ft. 1.3 ft.

22 m 7 m

3.1 inches 1 inch

inductive teaching1
Inductive Teaching

Big Idea

Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas

Small Ideas Small Ideas

elements of a concept jerome bruner2
Elements of a ConceptJerome Bruner

Every Concept has

1. A name

2. Examples and Non-Examples

(positives and negatives)

3. Attributes

4. Attribute Values

(essential and non-essential)

A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential attributes of the concept

understanding a concept means knowing all of these elements1
UNDERSTANDING A CONCEPT MEANS KNOWING ALL OF THESE ELEMENTS

1. A name

2. Examples and Non-Examples

(positives and negatives)

3. Attributes

4. Attribute Values

(essential and non-essential)

A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential attributes of the concept

deductive inductive1
Teacher Writes Rule on Board

Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness

Teacher Asks Students For Examples

Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Teacher Gives Students Magnets

Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets

Students Generate a Rule/Generalization

Teacher Gives Students Other Materials

Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets

Students Verify Predictions

Deductive Inductive
conditions of learning concepts after robert gagne1
External

Presentation of examples representative of the concept

Instructions to elicit a common link

Verification of concept

Reinforcement

REPETITION?

Internal

Discriminate between examples and non-examples

Conditions of Learning Concepts(after Robert Gagne’)
interview with otto rotcod ph d
Interview with OTTO ROTCOD, PH.D.

Man, Oprah's sharp on A.M.

No, Mel Gibson is a casino's big lemon.

Sir, I soon saw Bob was no Osiris.

Oh, no! Don Ho!

Repel evil as a live leper!

Draw pupil’s lip upward.

Sit on a potato pan, Otis.

Go deliver a dare, vile dog.

Ned, go gag Ogden.

Draw, o coward!

Eh, Ca va, la vache?

So, Ida, adios!

A’lautel elle alla, l’autel elle alla, elle le tua la.

Sex at noon taxes.

Stella won no wallets

Too bad, I hid a boot.

more with dr rotcod
More with Dr. Rotcod

Star comedy by Democrats.

Cigar? Toss it in a can, it is so tragic.

No lemons, no melon.

Doc note, I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod.

Tuna nut

Go hang a salami! I'm a lasagna hog!

U.F.O. tofu.

Sniff'um muffins.

Bird rib.

Dairy myriad.

Gnu dung.

Laminated E.T. animal.

If I had a hi-fi!

Tarzan raised a Desi Arnaz rat.

otto rotcod continued
Otto Rotcod (continued)

Pa's a sap.

Ma is as selfless as I am!

Racecar

Madam

Kayak

Bob Ava 03230

Evil olive.

Lager, Sir, is regal.

Red rum, sir is murder!

Yo! Bottoms up, U.S. Motto, boy!

Cain: A maniac!

Senile Felines

Solo gigolos.

Sore eye, Eros?

Egad, an adage!

Rats live on no evil star.

Never odd or even

Step on no pets!

even more dr rotcod
Even More Dr. Rotcod…

Yawn a more Roman way.

Rise to vote, Sir!

A man, a plan, a canal; Panama?

A dog, a plan, a canal: pagoda.

A man, a plan, a cat, a canal; Panama?

A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal--Panama!

A Toyota! Race fast, safe car. A Toyota

A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!

A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal - Panama!

Dennis, Nell, Edna, Leon, Nedra, Anita, Rolf, Nora, Alice, Carol, Leo, Jane, Reed, Dena, Dale, Basil, Rae, Penny, Lana, Dave, Denny, Lena, Ida, Bernadette, Ben, Ray, Lila, Nina, Jo, Ira, Mara, Sara, Mario, Jan, Ina, Lily, Arne, Bette, Dan, Reba, Diane, Lynn, Ed, Eva, Dana, Lynne, Pearl, Isabel, Ada, Ned, Dee, Rena, Joel, Lora, Cecil, Aaron, Flora, Tina, Arden, Noel, and Ellen sinned.

web site of doctor otto rotcod

Web Site ofDoctor Otto Rotcod

http://www.doctorottorotcod.www//:ptth

find the pattern1
Find the Pattern

CircumferenceDiameter

11 cm 3.5 cm

56 inches 17.8 inches

4 ft. 1.3 ft.

22 m 7 m

3.1 inches 1 inch

edward benbow a palindrome of 100 000 words
Edward Benbow…A Palindrome of 100,000 words

Begins “Al, sign it ‘Lover’!…

And ends …

Lawrence Levine’s 1986 palindromic novel, Dr. Awkward and Olson in Oslo contains 31,594 words

slide51
ROMA TIBI SUBITO MOTIBUS IBIT AMOR

NIYON ANOMHMATA MH MONAN OYIN

slide52

A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a pint, a catalpa, a gas, an oil, a bird, a yell, a vat, a caw, a pax, a wag, a tax, a nay, a ram, a cap, a yam, a gay, a tsar, a wall, a car, a luger, a ward, a bin, a woman, a vassal, a wolf, a tuna, a nit, a pall, a fret, a watt, a bay, a daub, a tan, a cab, a datum, a gall, a hat, a fag, a zap, a say, a jaw, a lay, a wet, a gallop, a tug, a trot, a trap, a tram, a torr, a caper, a top, a tonk, a toll, a ball, a fair, a sax, a minim, a tenor, a bass, a passer, a capital, a rut, an amen, a ted, a cabal, a tang, a sun, an ass, a maw, a sag, a jam, a dam, a sub, a salt, an axon, a sail, an ad, a wadi, a radian, a room, a rood, a rip, a tad, a pariah, a revel, a reel, a reed, a pool, a plug, a pin, a peek, a parabola, a dog, a pat, a cud, a nu, a fan, a pal, a rum, a nod, an eta, a lag, an eel, a batik, a mug, a mot, a nap, a maxim, a mood, a leek, a grub, a gob, a gel, a drab, a citadel, a total, a cedar, a tap, a gag, a rat, a manor, a bar, a gal, a cola, a pap, a yaw, a tab, a raj, a gab, a nag, a pagan, a bag, a jar, a bat, a way, a papa, a local, a gar, a baron, a mat, a rag, a gap, a tar, a decal, a tot, a led, a tic, a bard, a leg, a bog, a burg, a keel, a doom, a mix, a map, an atom, a gum, a kit, a baleen, a gala, a ten, a don, a mural, a pan, a faun, a ducat, a pagoda, a lob, a rap, a keep, a nip, a gulp, a loop, a deer, a leer, a lever, a hair, a pad, a tapir, a door, a moor, an aid, a raid, a wad, an alias, an ox, an atlas, a bus, a madam, a jag, a saw, a mass, an anus, a gnat, a lab, a cadet, an em, a natural, a tip, a caress, a pass, a baronet, a minimax, a sari, a fall, a ballot, a knot, a pot, a rep, a carrot, a mart, a part, a tort, a gut, a poll, a gateway, a law, a jay, a sap, a zag, a fat, a hall, agamut, a dab, a can, a tabu, a day, a batt, a waterfall, a patina, a nut, a flow, a lass, a van, a mow, a nib, a draw, a regular, a call, a war, a stay, a gam, a yap, a cam, a ray, an ax, a tag, a wax, a paw, a cat, a valley, a drib, a lion, a saga, a plat, a catnip, a pooh, a rail, a calamus, a dairyman, a bater, a canal--Panama.

your turn complete the palindromes
Your Turn…complete the palindromes
  • Name no ___________
  • Step on ____________
  • Never odd _______________
  • Some men interpret ______________
  • Dennis and Edna ____________
  • Egad, a base tone denotes _________
  • Was it Eliot’s _________________?
slide54

23+45

Take any two numbers

23

45

Add them together

68

86

Stop if the sum is a palindrome

Otherwise reverse the number

And add these numbers

154

451

Continue the process until

The sum is a palindrome

605

506

1111

attributes a
Examples

a

Non-Examples

b

Attributes a
romeo wherefore art thou
Romeo, wherefore art thou…

Why then, O brawling love? O loving hate! O anything, of nothing first create! O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is. This love I fee, that feel no love in this. (Act 1)

slide59
Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die hard. And so, each and every time I see an actor on stage perform delicate surgery, I think that it is extremely urgent to consider whether or not it is a close shave. Thoughtfully consider this arranged staged scenario:

Noticing her dark black shorts, and not wishing to come to a complete stop, I clumsily blurted, “Real genuine messy garbage obviously clearly is bad waste.” Irregardless, could you visually picture all that?

Honest truth?

waste of time check out these ap style analysis concepts
Figurative Language

Alliteration

Assonance/Consonance

Simile

Metaphor

Personification

Onomatopoeia

Hyperbole

Paradox

Sarcasm

Invective/Splenetic

Metonymy

Synedoche

Diction

Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic

Colloquial/Informal

Archaic

Denotative/Connotative

Concrete/Abstract

Eupnonious Cacophonous

Waste of Time?Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts
find the concept
Find the Concept

Yes The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.

No Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.

Yes Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.

No The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.

Yes The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was empty.

No The book was about knights in armor.

Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.

Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered through the dense undergrowth.

Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold dust.

which of these might be taught using an inductive concept model1
Which of these might be taught using an inductive concept model?
  • Identify adverbs
  • Know time period in which Poe wrote
  • Recognize similes in writing examples
the big high and lonesome
The Big High and Lonesome

The big high and lonesome’s a place in my mind

like out from Lakeview to Burns

Or up on the Judith or at Promontory

‘bout where the UP tracks turn

It’s anywhere you feel tiny

when you get a good look at the sky

And sometimes when it’s stormin’

you can look the Lord in the eye.

which of these might be taught using an inductive concept model2
Which of these might be taught using an inductive concept model?
  • Identify adverbs
  • Know time period in which Poe wrote
  • Recognize similes in writing examples
  • Understand miscibility in liquids
  • Know why two coffee cans roll down an inclined plane at different speeds
  • Recognize a “zone” defense in football
  • Understand gerrymandering
steps in the concept attainment model
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
  • Select a concept
  • Determine the Definition
  • Select the attributes
  • Choose the examples
  • Introduce the process
  • Present the examples and have students identify the attributes
  • Have students develop their concept definition and possibly provide examples
  • Focus student attention on how they developed the concept
now here s a concept
Now Here’s a Concept

The girl wearing a bow took a bow.

Jason moped around the house when his dad. refused to buy him a moped.

The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.

The unionized stockroom workers had ionized and unionized water.

At the present, Rob will present the award.

The bassbass sang “Take Me to the River.”

some more
Some more…
  • The bandage was wound around the wound.
  • The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
  • The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
  • After a number of injections my jaw got number.
  • The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.
still more of these suckers
Still more of these suckers…
  • The farm was used to produce produce.
  • The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
  • We must polish the Polish furniture.
  • He could lead if he would get the lead out.
  • When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.
slide72

As a teacher, you know a concept that students should “have”…

How get it “across” to students?

elements of a concept jerome bruner3
Elements of a ConceptJerome Bruner

Every Concept has

1. A name

2. Examples and Non-Examples

(positives and negatives)

3. Attributes

4. Attribute Values

(essential and non-essential)

A RULE, then, is the statement of the essential attributes of the concept.

slide74

Inductive Teaching

  • Teacher gives students magnets
  • Students identify what things are attracted to magnets
  • Students generate a rule/ generalization
  • Teacher gives students other materials
  • Students predict which materials will be attracted to magnets
  • Students verify predictions
inductive teaching2
Inductive Teaching

Big Idea

Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas

Small Ideas Small Ideas

conditions of learning concepts after robert gagne2
External

Presentation of examples representative of the concept

Instructions to elicit a common link

Verification of concept

Reinforcement

REPETITION?

Internal

Discriminate between examples and non-examples

Conditions of Learning Concepts(after Robert Gagne’)
find the pattern2
Find the Pattern

CircumferenceDiameter

11 cm 3.5 cm

56 inches 17.8 inches

4 ft 1.3 ft.

22 m 7 m

3.1 inches 1 inch

attributes
Examples

a

Non-Examples

b

Attributes
romeo wherefore art thou1
Romeo, wherefore art thou…

Why then, O brawling love? O loving hate! O anything, of nothing first create! O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is. This love I fee, that feel no love in this. (Act 1)

slide82
Old customs (and nocturnal vampires) die hard. And so, each and every time I see an actor on stage perform delicate surgery, I think that it is extremely urgent to consider whether or not it is a close shave. Thoughtfully consider this arranged staged scenario:

Noticing her dark black shorts, and not wishing to come to a complete stop, I clumsily blurted, “Real genuine messy garbage obviously clearly is bad waste.” Irregardless, could you visually picture all that?

Honest truth?

pleonasm the use of more words than those necessary to denote mere sense redundancy all over again

Pleonasm…the use of more words than those necessary to denote mere sense. . . redundancy (all over again?)

waste of time check out these ap style analysis concepts1
Figurative Language

Alliteration

Assonance/Consonance

Simile

Metaphor

Personification

Onomatopoeia

Hyperbole

Paradox

Sarcasm

Invective/Splenetic

Metonymy

Synedoche

Diction

Monosyllabic/Polysyllabic

Colloquial/Informal

Archaic

Denotative/Connotative

Concrete/Abstract

Eupnonious Cacophonous

Waste of Time?Check out these AP Style Analysis Concepts
find the concept1
Find the Concept

Yes The hunter ran quickly after the fleeing deer.

No Jimmy ran his razor scooter off the path.

Yes Kit Carson stole quietly up to the working beaver.

No The grizzly bear rummaged in the garbage can.

Yes The cowboy rapidly fired his gun until it was empty.

No The book was about knights in armor.

Yes Susan lovingly hugged her younger sister.

Yes The magnificently powerful tiger slithered through the dense undergrowth.

Yes The miner very quickly filled his sacks with gold dust.

which of these might be taught using an inductive concept model4
Which of these might be taught using an inductive concept model?
  • Identify adverbs
  • Know time period in which Poe wrote
  • Recognize similes in writing examples
  • Understand miscibility in liquids
  • Know why two coffee cans roll down an inclined plane at different speeds
  • Recognize a “zone” defense in football
  • Understand gerrymandering
steps in the concept attainment model1
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
  • Select a concept
  • Determine the Definition
  • Select the attributes
  • Choose the examples
  • Introduce the process
  • Present the examples and have students identify the attributes
  • Have students develop their concept definition and possibly provide examples
  • Focus student attention on how they developed the concept
now here s a concept1
Now Here’s a Concept

The girl wearing a bow took a bow.

Jason moped around the house when his dad. refused to buy him a moped.

The sewer threw her sewing into the sewer.

The unionized stockroom workers had ionized and unionized water.

At the present, Rob will present the award.

some more1
Some more…
  • The bandage was wound around the wound.
  • The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
  • The wind was too strong to wind the sail.
  • After a number of injections my jaw got number.
  • The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.
still more of these suckers1
Still more of these suckers…
  • The farm was used to produce produce.
  • The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
  • We must polish the Polish furniture.
  • He could lead if he would get the lead out.
  • When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.
a heteronym words spelled same with a different meaning and pronunciation1
A Heteronym(words spelled same with a different meaning and pronunciation)

The bassbass sang “Take Me to the River.”

your job
Your job?
  • To teach an inductive lesson this week (or very early next week and present your findings to the class on Tuesday.
  • Have fun…and hear you next week.
very special thanks to
Very special thanks to:

Dr. Howard Jones from the University of Houston for generously allowing me to “steal” his ideas (and use his PowerPoint Presentations) and encouraging me to continue my quest to be a missionary of models.