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  1. Models of Teaching Howard L. Jones Deductive Strategies… David P. Ausubel’s Efforts

  2. Concepts Defined Concepts Outcomes

  3. Find the Pattern CircumferenceDiameter 11 cm 3.5 cm 56 inches 17.8 inches 4 ft. 1.3 ft. 22 m 7 m 3.1 inches 1 inch

  4. Find the Pattern CircumferenceDiameter 11 cm 3.5 cm 56 inches 17.8 inches 4 ft. 1.3 ft. 22 m 7 m 3.1 inches 1 inch Circumference = 3.14… x Diameter

  5. Find the Pattern C = ∏D CircumferenceDiameter 11 cm 3.5 cm 56 inches 17.8 inches 4 ft. 1.3 ft. 22 m 7 m 3.1 inches 1 inch Circumference = 3.14… x Diameter

  6. Inductive Teaching Big Idea Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas Small Ideas Small Ideas

  7. Multiple Paths to Learning • Teacher Gives Students Magnets • Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets • Students Determine Characteristics of Objects that Magnets Attract • Teacher Gives Students Other Materials • Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets • Students Verify Predictions

  8. Deductive Teaching Big Idea (Big Deal) Smaller Ideas Smaller Ideas Small Ideas Small Ideas

  9. Another Way… Deductive Teaching • Teacher Writes on Board “Magnets are attracted to other metals, mostly those made of iron and steel” • Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness • Teacher Asks Students For Examples • Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets • Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to magnets • Students Verify Predictions

  10. Teacher Writes the Answer on Board … Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness Teacher Asks Students For Examples Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets Students Verify Predictions Teacher Gives Students Magnets Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets Students Generate Answer Based on heir Observations Teacher Gives Students Other Materials and Magnets Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets Students Verify Predictions Deductive Inductive

  11. Teacher Writes the Answer on Board … Teacher Explains All Words, Ensures Meaningfulness Teacher Asks Students For Examples Teacher Gives Students Materials and Magnets Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets Students Verify Predictions Teacher Gives Students Magnets Students Identify What Things Are Attracted to Magnets Students Generate Answer Based on heir Observations Teacher Gives Students Other Materials and Magnets Students Predict Which Materials Will Be Attracted to Magnets Students Verify Predictions Deductive Inductive

  12. But There are Other Outcomes Concepts Defined Generalizations Concepts Rules Principles Outcomes

  13. A Generalization • has a broad level of application. • contains two or more concepts. • states the relationship which exists between (among) the concepts found in the generalization.

  14. Objects in motion tend to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force • He more mass an object has the greater the force necessary to accelerate it • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

  15. Objects in motiontend to stay in motion unless interacted upon by an outsideforce • He moremass an object has the greater the forcenecessary to accelerate it • For everyaction there is an equal and oppositereaction

  16. As the size of a place changes the kinds of goods and services found in that place tend to change.

  17. As the size of a place changes the kinds of goods and services found in that place tend to change. • When two or more societies interact, each tends to acquire some of the characteristics of the other society.

  18. As the size of a place changes the kinds of goods and services found in that place tend to change. • When two or more societies interact, each tends to acquire some of the characteristics of the other society. • When two or more groups of people wish to use the same land in different ways, a conflict usually results.

  19. When the people in a society feel that they are not being governed in their best interests they usually attempt top change the government to suit their interests.

  20. How to teach rules and generalizations DEDUCTIVELY (and effectively) The work of David Ausubel

  21. Ausubel’s Postulates • Thinking can be taught Deductive Thinking

  22. Deductive Thinking General Specific

  23. Basic Postulates • Learning is more than passive listening • Teacher must present generalizations that govern the meaningfulness of new information • The purpose of teaching is to strengthen cognitive structures

  24. David P. Ausubel “Preconceptions are amazingly tenacious and resistant to extinction.” Advance Organizers

  25. Elements of Ausubel Lessons • Advance Organizer Introductory material presented ahead of the learning task and at a higher level of abstraction and inclusiveness than the learning task itself.

  26. Organizers, we have organizers … Concept Definition Landforms are land surfaces that have characteristic shapes and sizes. Analogy Two-paragraph comparison between river systems and the body’s circulatory system Generalization The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  27. Organizers, we have organizers … Concept Definition Landforms are land surfaces that have characteristic shapes and sizes. Analogy Two-paragraph comparison between river systems and the body’s circulatory system Generalization The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life.

  28. A chemical bond is a state in which the atoms of two or more elements are at lower energy levels than they would be if they existed separately. • A Spanish verb is like a good mystery; it tells who did it and when. • A season is an arbitrary period of time with distinctive features. • When the ing ending is placed on words ending with vowel-consonant-e (e.g. mate, live), the e is dropped.

  29. The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life. Agriculture Resource Manufacturing Extractions Technology Persistent Problems Irrigation Seed Energy Fertilization Mechanization Transportation

  30. The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life. Agriculture Resource Manufacturing Extractions Technology Persistent Problems Irrigation Seed Energy Fertilization Mechanization Transportation Intelectual Scaffolding

  31. The Ever Popular Concept Map

  32. The more technology and knowledge humans possess, the less limiting are the influences of nature on human life. Agriculture Resource Manufacturing Extractions Technology Persistent Problems Irrigation Seed Energy Fertilization Mechanization Transportation Subsumption

  33. External Conditions Teacher informs student what is expected Teacher invokes recall of component concepts Student makes statement in own words Student demonstrates in another situation Reinforcement Internal Conditions Mastery of component concepts Rule and Generalization Learning(including Defined Concepts)

  34. Deductive Processes Generalization data data data data data data data data data conglomerate conglomerate conglomerate data data data data data data data data conglomerate data data data data data data data data data data data data data data data data

  35. Deductive Processes Generalization data data data data data data sub- sub- sub- generalization generalization generalization data data data data data data data sub generalization data data data data data data data data data data data data data data data data

  36. Deductive Processes Advance Organizer data data data data data data Integrative Integrative Integrative Reconciliation Reconciliation Reconciliation data data data data data data data IntegrativeReconciliation data data data data data data data data data data data data data data data data

  37. If a teacher lectures in the middle of the forest and nobody’s there to listen, does he actually make sense?

  38. Calendars

  39. Why do we need calendars anyway?

  40. Calendars are affected not only by agricultural needs but also by religious and political concerns

  41. hat's my Advance Organizer Calendars are affected not only by agricultural needs but also by religious and political concerns

  42. The Ancient Celts … • Recognized only two seasons - light and dark. This time of year was still called dark.

  43. Jewish Calendar Nisan

  44. George Washington’s Multiple Birthdays And a Third One

  45. George Washington’s Birthday Celebrations • February 11, 1732 (Band of Fourth Continental Army serenades him at Valley Forge in 1778) • February 22, 1732 (Generally observed from 1796) • President's Day (Third Monday of February - P. L. 90-363; effective 1971)

  46. George Washington was first in war, first in peace… And the first to have his birthday juggled to make a long weekend. -Ashley Cooper

  47. Early Roman Calendar • Apparently borrowed from Greeks (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE)

  48. Early Roman Calendar • Apparently borrowed from Greeks (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE) • Ten months and 304 days (60 days in middle of winter ignored)

  49. Early Roman Calendar • Apparently borrowed from Greeks (Romulus founds Rome in 738 BCE) • Ten months and 304 days (60 days in middle of winter ignored) • Names of months (Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quintilis,Sextilis, September, October, November, December)