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CUIN 6371 Models of Teaching. Fall, 2003 Mnemonics and Memory. Information Processing. Inductive - Jerome Bruner/ Hilda Taba Deductive - David Ausubel Inquiry - J. J. Schwab/J. Richard Suchman Jean Piaget/ L. Kohlberg Memory - R. Atkinson/J. Levin/J. Lucas

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cuin 6371 models of teaching

CUIN 6371Models of Teaching

Fall, 2003

Mnemonics and Memory

information processing
Information Processing
  • Inductive - Jerome Bruner/

Hilda Taba

  • Deductive - David Ausubel
  • Inquiry - J. J. Schwab/J. Richard Suchman

Jean Piaget/ L. Kohlberg

  • Memory - R. Atkinson/J. Levin/J. Lucas
  • Creativity - W. J. J. Gordon
a wonderfully effective model with
A Wonderfully Effective Model…with

a limited set of outcomes…

names, labels, directions, your significant other’s birthday, recalling steps and procedures, recalling and saying dialogue, song lyrics, “’I’ before ‘e’ except after ‘c’,” John Dewey’s birthday, and even the height of Mt. Fuji….

a wonderfully effective model
A Wonderfully Effective Model…

Effect Sizes at or above 1.00….

s.d.

functions of memory
Functions of Memory….
  • Temporary Holding
  • Mediational Use
  • Lifetime
slide6

Stimulus

The amount of information

readily available to the learner

drops at each successive level

Includes both

conscious and

nonconscious stimuli –

literally millions of

bits per second

Sensory

Register

Short-Term

Memory

Active

Processing

Long-Term

Memory

Usually 5-20 sec.

Only a small amount

Is stored here

To retain it must

be processed actively

Explicit, processed

Memories and implicit

Learning -skills and

conditioned responses

slide9
Bed Quilt

Dark Silence

Fatigue Clock

Snoring Night

Toss Tired

Night Artichoke

Turn Night

Rest Dress

memory is active not passive

Memory is Active, not Passive

And it is forgiving….

slide11

Mnemosyne

In Greek mythology, the goddess of memory. A Titaness,

she was the daughter of Uranus

(Heaven) and Gaea (Earth), and, according to Hesiod,

the mother (by Zeus) of the nine Muses.

slide12

Mnemonics Use

Attending

Linking

Practicing

slide16

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

*

0

#

slide17

1

ABC

2

DEF

3

GHI

4

JKL

5

MNO

6

PRS

7

TUV

8

WXY

9

*

OPER

0

#

slide18

FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE-

SULTS OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC

STUDY COMBINED WITH THE

EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS

slide19

FINISHED FILES ARE THE RE-

SULTS OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC

STUDY COMBINED WITH THE

EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS

slide20

FIVE FILES OF FACTS WERE

FOUND AFTER THE CHIEF

OF POLICE LEFT

slide21

FIVE FILES OFFACTS WERE

FOUND AFTER THE CHIEF

OF POLICE LEFT

slide22

A bird

in the

the hand

Two of

of a kind

Paris in

in the spring

who studies this stuff and why
Who Studies This Stuff? …and Why?

Richard Atkinson – Stanford

Joel Levin, Michael Pressley,

et al.- Wisconsin….

And many others

Results are ambivalent…but a few things stand out

there is always a need for a link between
There is always a need for a link between ...

To Sleep Parallel

Word

dormir

Coding Link

linus and lucy viewing a herd of cows
Linus and Lucy Viewing a Herd of Cows

Linus…Do they always bring the cows in from the pasture at night?

Lucy..Of course, you blockhead. If they leave them out overnight they get

PASTEURIZED!

slide26

Guess what, Biff.

After I go to the

Post Office I am going to

the Vet and get TUTORED!

slide29

Association Learning…

one thing associated with another

A associated with B

.

substitute word
Substitute Word…

I’ll Ask YOU!

Alaska

substitute word technique
One --- Run

Two---Zoo

Three---Tree

Four---Door

Five---Hive

Six---Sticks

Seven---Heaven

Eight---Gate

Nine---Wine

Ten---Den

Eleven---Eleven (Football)

Twelve---Shelve

Thirteen---Hurting

Fourteen---Courting

Fifteen-Lifting

Substitute Word Technique
after you attend ways and means of ensuring memory35
After You Attend…Ways and Means of Ensuring Memory…
  • Linking
  • Substitute Word
  • Key Wordor Phrase
key word system
Key Word System

Bondage to Ignorance

Cave

Escape

Responsibility

Wisdom

key phrases
Key Phrases…

EBDGF

Roy G. Biv

Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

Mary Eats Peanut Butter

In Persia Men Are Tall

HOMES

Lucy Can’t Drink Milk (50,100,500,1000)

Every Bible Gets Dusty After Easter

(Standard Guitar Tuning)

King Henry Died Miserable Death, Caught Measles

(Kilometer, hectometer, decameter, meter, decimeter, centimeter, millimeter)

slide38

Capitals Always San…

Agua = water

If at end - capital same

name as country

slide39

PAMShould

Be Here,

Dear

N

W

E

S

Western Australia

South Australia

Victoria in

her castle

in Wales

Anticlockwise

key questions about using mnemonics
Key Questions About Using Mnemonics
  • How best to get learners to attend?
  • How often do you review?
  • Linking things together

Who gives the links? Teacher or learners?

  • How is the new information linked to old?

Use ridiculous associations?

a few sesquipedalians
A Few Sesquipedalians

Brumal

Discommode

Mendicity

Muliebrity

Omphalos

Anchorite

some sesquipedalian sentences
Some Sesquipedalian Sentences
  • The revolving lithic conglomerate accumulates no congeries of a miniscule, verdant bryophytic plant
  • The temperature of the aqueous content of an unremittingly ogled saucepan does not reach 100 degrees C.
  • Where there are visible vapors having their prevalence in ignited carbonaceous materials, there is conflagration
  • Upon the non presence of the domestic Felis catus the Mus musculi proceed to engage in sportive capers.
  • A plethora of individuals with expertise in culinary techniques vitiate the potable concoction produced by steeping certain comestibles.
more sesquipedalian sentences
More Sesquipedalian Sentences
  • It is fruitless to attempt to indoctrinate a superannuated canine with innovative maneuvers.
  • Exigency is the matriarch of ingenious contrivance.
  • The person presenting the ultimate cachinnation possesses, thereby, the optimal cachinnation
  • Members of an avian species of identical plumage congregate.
  • You appear to be inebriated with the exuberance of your own verbosity.
fears and phobias
Fears and Phobias

acrophobia androphobia

categelophobia ergasophobia

erythrophobia gynephobia

pnignophobia ptergophobia

thanatophobia villophobia

slide51

Okay, now no one gets into

Heaven unless you can answer

this…a train leaves Philadelphia

at 1:00 PM going 70 miles an hour.

Another leaves Chicago at the same time…

The Mathphobe’s Nightmare….

a new concept
Non-Examples

I wondered whether my Scotch Tape Dispenser had enough tape to complete the job. I noticed that it didn’t and added fresh tape.

Examples

Leaving home this morning I had gone but a mile when I asked myself whether I actually saw the garage door close. I turned around, returned home, and, indeed, found that the door was nicely closed.

A New Concept…
a new concept53
Non-Examples

I remembered that I had not turned off the iron. I returned home to pull the plug.

Examples

Having handed in my weekly assignment to Prof. Jones, I left class early. On my way to the car I asked myself whether I had picked up the assignment for next week. I craftily sneaked back into class only to find that I had the sheet in my file folder that I carry everywhere.

A New Concept…
a new concept54
Non-Examples

I forgot to have my oil changed last month and the entire engine of my new Ferrari froze up…or was that in my dreams that I won a Ferrari?

Examples

Having emailed my mother that I would send the recipe that she requested, I woke up at 2AM and just knew that I hadn’t attached it to my email. When I checked with my computer I determined that it had been sent

A New Concept…
a new concept55
I simply forgot to send my girl friend flowers for Valentine’s Day. She is really steamed.

Examples

Did I send that check to cover my rent for this month? I don’t think so…soooooo …I called the apartment manager and he informed me that he had already deposited my check into his account.

A New Concept…
adding integers to the tune of mr sandman
Adding Integers…to the tune of “Mr. Sandman”

When you adding and signs don’t match

(Boom, Boom, Boom, Boom)

Forget the signs and just subtract

Then take the sign of the larger number

(Boom, Boom, Boom, Boom)

Your problem’s right and you won’t wonder…

-21 +12 =

the planet song she ll be coming round the mountain
The Planet Song“She’ll Be Coming ‘Round the Mountain”

There are nine old planets moving ‘round the sun

‘round the sun

There are nine old planets moving ‘round the sun

‘round the sun

There are nine old planets moving,

There are nine old planets moving,

There are nine old planets moving ‘round the sun

‘round the sun

V, 2

We have Mercury and Venus, Earth and Mars…(Earth and Mars)

Then come Jupiter and Saturn, (giant balls, giant balls)

At last we have Uranus, Neptune, Pluto …

the continent song frere jacques
The Continent Song(“Frere Jacques…”)

North America

South America,

Europe too,

Good for you.

Asia and Australia

Don’t forget Antarctica

Africa.

Now you’re through

avagadro s number frere jacques
Avagadro’s Number(“Frere Jacques…”)

Avagadro, Avagadro

number please, number please

6 times 10 to the 23rd,

6 times 10 to the 23rd

atoms in a mole,

atoms in a mole

slide62

Mnemonics Use

Attending

Linking

Practicing

we do know that
We Do Know That…

Practice..not repetition…works….

slide64
…Now nature herself teaches us what to do. When we see in everyday life things that are petty, ordinary, and banal, we generally fail to remember them, because the mind is not being stirred by anything novel or marvelous. But if we see or hear something exceptionally base, dishonorable, unusual, great, unbelievable, or ridiculous, that we are likely to remember for a long time. Accordingly, things immediate to our eye or ear we commonly forget; incidents of our childhood we often remember best. Nor could things be so for any other reason than that ordinary things easily slip from the memory while the striking and the novel stay longer in the mind.

Ad Herennium, ca. 1000 BCE

slide66
If there is to be a use of ridiculous associations…
  • Substitution – using one object in place of another
  • Action – Get movement or action into pictures
  • Exaggeration – see many items (millions)
  • Out of Proportion – Larger or smaller than real life
  • Distortion – bent or damaged in some way
effects of the memory model
Nurturant

Creative Attitudes and Capacities

A Sense of Intellectual Power

Instructional

Mastery of Facts and Ideas

Attending Faculties

A System for Memorization

Effects of the Memory Model