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CUIN 6371 Models of Teaching. Fall, 2003 Howard L. Jones Day 5 Inductive Strategies… Hilda Taba’s Efforts. Information Processing. Inductive - Jerome Bruner / Hilda Taba Deductive - David Ausubel Inquiry - J. J. Schwab/J. Richard Suchman Jean Piaget/ L. Kohlberg

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cuin 6371 models of teaching

CUIN 6371Models of Teaching

Fall, 2003

Howard L. Jones

Day 5

Inductive Strategies…

Hilda Taba’s Efforts

information processing
Information Processing
  • Inductive - Jerome Bruner/

Hilda Taba

  • Deductive - David Ausubel
  • Inquiry - J. J. Schwab/J. Richard Suchman

Jean Piaget/ L. Kohlberg

  • Memory - R. Atkinson/J. Levin/J. Lucas
  • Creativity - W. J. J. Gordon
slide3

The Most Common The “Guided Tour”

  • Teaching Pattern Approach
      • • Providing Information
      • • Verification of information
      • • Application of Information
        • (after Renner)
slide4

The Most Common The “Guided Tour”

  • Teaching Pattern Approach
      • • Providing Information
      • • Verification of information
      • • Application of Information
        • (after Renner)

Deductive Teaching

slide5

Part of

Learning is Identifying Patterns!

Dealing with categories!

another teaching pattern after karplus
Another Teaching Pattern (after Karplus)

Students

Explore

Explain

By creating and

dealing with

Categories Apply

Personal Investigative Approach

and these categories are
And these categories are

Concepts – wegroup objects and events and people around us into classes … respond to class membership rather than uniquenesses

Rules or Generalizations – combinations of concepts that - when applied - can allow for behavior with predictable results

hilda taba s postulates
Hilda Taba’s Postulates
  • Thinking can be taught

But it is a special kind of thinking -

Inductive Thinking

another teaching pattern after karplus1
Another Teaching Pattern (after Karplus)

Students

Explore

Explain

By creating and

dealing with

Categories Apply

Personal Investigative Approach

processes of investigation
Processes of Investigation
  • Observing
  • Classifying
  • Measuring
  • Communicating
  • Inferring
  • Predicting
  • Hypothesis Formation
hilda taba s postulates1
Hilda Taba’s Postulates
  • Thinking can be taught
  • Thinking is an active transaction between the individual and data
  • Thought Processes are sequential
  • Concept Formation,
  • Interpretation of Data
  • Application of Principles
thanksgiving beer
THANKSGIVING BEER

Those Pilgrims stopped at Plymouth in the first place for the same reason that Bubba Billy Bob

pulls into the Quickie Mart. To wit: They were out of beer. Source: Beer Drinkers of America avers they were headed for the friendlier climes of Virginia but the beer was about gone (“our supplies were much spent, especially our beer,” a Mayflower passenger wrote).

BDA notes also that beer was good

shipboard nourishment because it

was nutritious and kept well.

concept development
Concept Development
  • What do you know? What did you read? see?

2. Do any of these items seem to belong together? Why?

3. Could some of these items belong in more than one group?

4. What names could we give these groups?

concepts via bruner and taba
Concept Attainment

Teacher Provides Examples and Non-Examples of the category that (s)he wants students to grasp

Usually, teacher provides label for new concept

Students “unpack” their thinking that led them to the concept

Concept Formation

Teacher elicits examples from students

Students provide labels for the categories (concepts)

…and focus on why they put the groups together and why they named the concept

Concepts Via Bruner and Taba
conditions of learning concepts after robert gagne
External

Presentation of examples representative of the concept

Instructions to elicit a common link

Verification of concept

Reinforcement

REPETITION NOT NEEDED

Internal

Discriminate between examples and non-examples

Conditions of Learning Concepts(after Robert Gagne’)
concepts via bruner and taba both teach concepts but
Concept Attainment

Directed primarily at how concepts are learned

Concept Formation

Builds upon what the student knows. “Understandings are built, not acquired.”

Concepts Via Bruner and Taba…both teach concepts, but
slide24

Pilgrims

Texans

slide25

And…

The American Revolution

slide26

;

Pilgrims

AmericanRevolution

slide27
Musical selection is played…”What are some different things that you heard?
  • Show parts of “The Patriot”…”When you hear the word revolution, what comes to mind?”
  • Several newspapers are examined…”What are some things that you see in the editorial section?”
  • Vegetables shared with class…”Describe the vegetables using your senses of taste, sight, and smell.”
interpretation of data
Interpretation of Data

1. What did you see..read? What differences and similarities do you see?

2. How do you account for the similarities and differences? What does this mean?

3. What can you say generally?

generalizations principles rules
Generalizations/Principles/Rules
  • Broad Level of Application
  • Lack mention of specific persons, places or things
  • Contains two or more concepts and includes the relationship between the concepts
slide30
When groups are oppressed they tend to want to leave or rebel
  • When people want freedom they will make dramatic changes
  • Often when groups of people are unhappy with their leadership new leaders emerge
  • A determined minority can change the course of history
  • Differences of belief lead to conflict
slide31
As the size of a place changes the kinds of goods and services found in that place tend to change.
  • When two or more societies interact, each tends to acquire some of the characteristics of the other society.
  • When two or more groups of people wish to use the same land in different ways, a conflict usually results.
slide32

Inductive Processes

Generalization

data data data

conglomerate conglomerate conglomerate

data data data data data data data

data conglomerate

data

data data data data data data data

data data data data data

data data data

finding concepts and generalizations
Finding Concepts and Generalizations

Joel Barker…

“The Power of Paradigms”

concepts generalizations
Paradigm Effect

Paradigm Paralysis

Paradigm Pioneers

Paradigm

Change

Innovations

Paradigm Shift

Paradigm Flexibility

People resist change

New ideas disrupt the status quo

Your successful past can block the future

Ideas of today take us to tomorrow

When a paradigm shifts everything and everyone goes back to zero

Paradigms affect your judgment

People who present successful paradigms are often outsider

Change tends to start from the edge

Concepts Generalizations
rule and generalization learning including defined concepts
External Conditions

Teacher informs student what is expected

Teacher invokes recall of component concepts

Student makes statement of generalization/rule in own words

Student demonstrates generalization/rule in another situation

Reinforcement

Internal Conditions

Mastery of component concepts

Rule and Generalization Learning(including Defined Concepts)
1791 western pennsylvania
1791 … Western Pennsylvania
  • Terrible transportation to eastern buyers
  • Farmers found it profitable to turn much of the corn and rye crop to whiskey
  • Federal Tax in 1791 on whiskey makers
  • 1792..tax removed from smallest stills in Virginia and North Carolina

What do you predict would happen?

(and Daniel Shays?)

application of generalizations
Application of Generalizations
  • Predicting…What would happen if…?

2. Why? What makes you think this will happen?

3. What would be needed for that to happen? Under what conditions?

  • And if it didn’t happen?
slide40
Assimilation
  • Accommodation
slide41

Generalization: When people feel they are not being governed in their best interests, they tend to attempt to change the government to reflect these interests

People’s

Interest

Gov’t

Policy

Change

Attempts

Gov’t

People

Year

Results

Pilgrims

English

Colonists

United

States

Pennsylvania

Farmers

Alternate: When people become unhappy with their

government, they will usually try to change the government.

slide43

Data Retrieval Chart

Plato Aristotle Locke Greene

Purpose of school

Role of teacher

Curriculum

Schools and society

Truth

And don’t forget John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky

next time
Next Time

How to teach rules and generalizations DEDUCTIVELY(and effectively)

The work of David Ausubel