History of Russian Public Policy The Big NamesVladimir Lenin: Democratic CentralismJoseph Stalin: StalinismMikhail Gorbachev: Glasnost and Perestroika Boris Yeltsin: Shock Therapy
Democratic Centralism (Lenin)- Sort of Democractic- Definitely CentralistFour Pillars of Democratic Centralism1. Every directing body of a political party has to be elected.2. Party members and bodies have to send reports of their activities to their party leaders.3. The lower members of the party, or members in the minority, have to submit to the will of higher members or the members in the plurality.4. All decisions of the higher members or the members in the plurality completely bind the minority or the lower members.
Stalinism (Stalin)-Rapid Industrialization-Centralization-Collectivization of Agriculture-Internal Terror (You all know about the purges)-Abiding by the Communist Party (Himself Essentially)
Glasnost (Gorbachev)-Less censorship of the people -Restricted secrecy of the government.-Rise in nationalism-Caused conflict.
Gorbachev ContinuedPerestroika-The word literally means restructuring.-Gorbachev called for democratization-The Law on Cooperatives-Allowing foreign investments. -Law on State Enterprise.
Shock Therapy (Yeltsin):-Liberalization of foreign trade-Increasing of interest rates.-Increased taxes, lowered budget-The economy in Russia was impacted very negatively by this.-Bad results on the economy.
Current Russian Public Policy -The Economy-Social Welfare-Civil Liberties, Rights, and Freedoms-The Environment
The Economy -State control of Energy-The Stabilization Fund. -The average wage increased from $90 to $500 over the past eight years, and the average pensionfrom $33 to $140. (Per Month)-Huge dependence on imports.-The economy is based on commodities.
Social Welfare -Only very specific in need people receive welfare. -Inflation is not factored into social welfare.-Fund for Social Support-The Ministry of Social Protection-Decentralization of welfare responsibility -26% of Russians live below the poverty line
Social Welfare Continued Pensions (Russia actually kind of cares!!!!)-Pension Fund makes up 83% of Russia's extra budgetary spending.-Two types of Pensions: Labor and Social-Worked for 20 years or more=Automatic Pension-Some conditions allow for increased pensions.-Most people receive labor pensions.
Civil Liberties, Rights, and Freedoms -Constitutional guarantees of human rights-These rights can’t be taken away from any citizen-Rights aren’t allowed to interfere with other’s rights -Equality of rights for everyone guaranteed-Privacy laws parallel to the U.S.-Capital punishment is allowed.-Children who are 18 or older and can be employed have to care for their parents, if they are unable to be employed. http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/ch2.html
Civil Liberties, Rights, and Freedoms Continued Freedom House Ratings (2013) vs. (2005) Democracy Score: 6.21 vs. 5.61 National Democratic Governance: 6.50 vs. 5.75 Electoral Process: 6.75 vs. 6.00 Civil Society: 5.50 vs. 4.75 Independent Media: 6.25 vs. 6.00Local Democratic Governance: 6.00 vs. 5.75 Judicial Framework and Independence: 6.00 vs. 5.25 Corruption: 6.50 vs. 5.75
The Environment-Establish an effective management system.-Make stricter laws against environmental damage.-Achieve environmental goals through economic incentives-Provide scientific information and analysis.-Improvement monitoring and prediction of environmental changes.-Environmental education initiatives to develop ecological awareness.
Education-Primary and secondary education in Russia are supposedly free (People are forced to pay for contributions to the school, as well as taxes)-5-14 years old: 83% are in school (Low)-15-19 years old: 71% are in school (High)-20-29 years old: 15% are in school (Average)-Very little scholarship funding by the government
Gender Issues-The government doesn’t care very much about it-Education rates are about equal-The percentage of seats in the Russian Federation Council held by women is 14%-Compared to the United States and the UK, this isn’t bad-23% in the UK, 18% in the U.S.
Sources http://www.kyivpost.com/content/russia-and-former-soviet-union/putin-26-of-russians-live-below-poverty-line-by-in-120410.html http://www.freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2012/russia http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/medvedev-signs-off-on-ecology-policy/457910.html Data.worldbank.org/indicator/SG.GEN.PARL.ZS http://stat.edu.ru/doc/eng_education.pdf http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/ch2.html http://en.ria.ru/analysis/20080301/100381963.html http://www.photius.com/countries/russia/society/russia_society_pensions.html
Word Scramble! 1. In Shock Therapy, Boris Yeltsin wanted tozelierabilniegfroderta.2. In Stalinism, Stalin wanted to collectivize agriculture eviiztcolcecelrutrgicua.3. If you work for 20 years or more in Russia, you qualify for at least a nuiimmmnpsieon.4. Crime penalty: tilapcahisnenmput is allowed throughout Russia.5. In Democratic Centralism, party members have to send reports of their activities to hrietrpytareladse.6. Glasnost ended up causing a irsenitianosmlin.7. Glasnost reforms ended up causing the organon-arbaahkk war.