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Unit Two – Honors World History

Unit Two – Honors World History

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Unit Two – Honors World History

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  1. Unit Two – Honors World History Byzantine, Mongol, Islam, African Societies

  2. SSWH4 - The student will analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 CE. • a. Analyze the importance of Justinian, include the influence of the Empress Theodora, Justinian’s Code, and Justinian’s efforts to recapture the west. • b. Describe the relationship between the Roman and Byzantine Empires; include the impact Byzantium had on Moscow and the Russian Empire, the effect of Byzantine culture on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev, and the rise of Constantinople as a center for law, religion, and the arts. • c. Explain the Great Schism of 1054 CE. • d. Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China and the West, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo. • e. Explain the Ottoman Empire’s role in the decline of Byzantium and the capture of Constantinople in 1453 CE.

  3. Day One

  4. First Ten • Listen to MLK Jr. Speech – 50th Anniversary

  5. Hook • Review Test Results • Where can I improve? • List two goals for Unit Two – List these in your “First Ten” area of your notebook.

  6. Hook • Originally Christianity had one church. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian Church split in 1054 CE (Great Schism). • Gospel of Jesus and Bible • Baptism • Priests/ • bishops • Seek converts

  7. Work Session • Time Period – 500 CE • Byzantine Empire – 527 CE – Justinian • 1240 CE Mongols Rise • 1453 CE – Constantinople falls to Ottomans • PPT Notes

  8. Constantinople • Constantinople became the sole capital of the empire and remained so until the successful revival of the western empire in the 8th century by Charlemagne. • The city is named after the emperor Constantine • Constantine announced the end to all persecution of Christians

  9. Byzantine Empire

  10. Justinian 482-565 CE • 527 – Succeeded his uncle – New Emperors of Rome • ABSOLUTE Power – Ran a theocracy – leader of the church and state • “New Caesar” • Known for his law code • Constant struggle to gain control of the west and restore the former Roman Empire

  11. Byzantine Empire

  12. Justinian’s Code • Greek Language – Distinctive Culture • Created a uniform law code from convoluted / contradictory laws of the Romans • The Code – 5,000 Roman Laws • The Digest: Opinions of legal thinkers about law • The Institutes: textbook to law students • The Novella – The New Laws passed after 534 • Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights, and criminal justice • Lasted 900 years!

  13. New Religion • Religion as well as law served imperial centralization. In 380, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered “demented and insane.”

  14. Book I, Of Persons • VIII. Slaves • 1. Slaves are in the power of masters, a power derived from the law of nations: for among all nations it may be remarked that masters have the power of life and death over their slaves, and that everything acquired by the slave is acquired for the master.

  15. Book II, Of Things • I. Division of Things • 1. By the law of nature these things are common to mankind: the air, running water, the • sea, and consequently the shores of the sea. No one, therefore, is forbidden to approach the seashore, provided that he respects habitats, monuments, and buildings which are not, like the sea, subject only to the law of nations. … • 5. The public use of the seashore is part of the law of nations, as is that of the sea itself; and, therefore, any person is at liberty to place on it a cottage, to which he may retreat, or to dry his nets there, and haul them from the sea; for the shores may be said to be the property of no man. … • 28. If the wheat of Titius is mixed with yours, when this takes place by mutual consent, the mixed heap belongs to you in common because … each grain, which before was the property of one or other of you, has by your mutual consent been made your common property; but, if the intermixture were accidental, or made by Titius without your consent, the mixed wheat does not then belong to you both in common… If either of you keep the whole quantity of mixed wheat, the other has a real actio [claim or suit] for the amount of wheat belonging to him, but it is in the province of the judge to estimate the quality of the wheat belonging to each.  

  16. Empress Theodora 500-548 CE • Wife of Justinian • Very powerful • Dealt with foreign problems/disputes/treaties • Assisted with the legislative process • Supported the construction of churches • After her death Justinian passed no more laws

  17. Constantinople • Capital City • Rebuilt city with walled fortifications • Church Construction • Hagia Sophia • Holy Wisdom • Preservation of Greco-Roman History • Ottoman Turks sack the city in 1453

  18. "Not since the world was made was there . . . so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that two-thirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world." • --Robert of Clari, a French crusader who witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204, describing Constantinople.

  19. The Great Schism: 1054 • 1054: The pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other in a dispute over religious doctrine

  20. Last Ten • Rome: • Three Reasons the Roman Empire fell: • First Christian Emperor in Constantinople: • In 476 CE: • Western Europe will see 500 years of dark ages • Eastern Europe is now the _________________ Empire • Byzantine: • Byzantine was different from the Roman Empire because they utilized a ____________ language and was a solid ___________ state. • ____________ was the significant leader of the Byzantine Empire • Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics:

  21. Day Two Engineering an Empire & Great Schism

  22. First Ten • Rome: • Three Reasons the Roman Empire fell: • First Christian Emperor in Constantinople: • In 476 CE: • Western Europe will see 500 years of dark ages • Eastern Europe is now the _________________ Empire • Byzantine: • Byzantine was different from the Roman Empire because they utilized a ____________ language and was a solid ___________ state. • ____________ was the significant leader of the Byzantine Empire • Differences between Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics: • CNN STUDENT NEWS

  23. Hook • Originally Christianity had one church. Because of political conflicts and differences in belief, the western and eastern parts of the Christian Church split in 1054 CE (Great Schism). • Gospel of Jesus and Bible • Baptism • Priests/ • bishops • Seek converts

  24. Work Session • Engineering an Empire • Discussion

  25. Last Ten • HOT SEAT

  26. Day Three Mongols

  27. First Ten • Drop your card in the basket on the front chair (Index Card with organization on it you are interested in researching) • Based on the map below describe the territories the Mongols invaded. For example, if you had to tell a person where the Mongol Empire was WITHOUT the use of a map – visual, how would you describe it? Where did they NOT invade?

  28. Hook • Fierce group of horsemen from Central Asia made their way into Russia around mid-1200’s • Genghis Khan was their leader: one of the most feared leaders of all time. • Known for their savage killing and burning  BRUTAL • Destroyed Kiev (1240) “no remaining eye to weep” • Ruled Southern Russia for 200 years

  29. Work Session • Quiz • Crash Course – The Mongols • PPT Slides • Start video if time

  30. Mongol Influences in the West • Nomadic people from central Asia • great horseman • Lead by Genghis Khan- one of the most feared warriors of all time • He launched a campaign of terror across central Asia • The Mongols destroyed one city after another • By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control

  31. Genghis Khan • Three things that made him such a great conqueror: • He was a brilliant organizer. He assembled his Mongol warriors into a mighty force, following the model of the Chinese military. • He was a gifted strategist. He used various tricks to confuse his enemy. • Used cruelty as a weapon. He believed in terrifying his enemies into surrender. • Genghis Khan dies in 1227 from illness. His successors continue to expand his empire

  32. PaxMongolica • From the mid 1200’s-1300’s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia. • This period is referred to as Mongol Peace • The Mongols guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries from one end of the empire to the other.

  33. Mongol Influences In China • Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, unites China • But he is warned, “I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback” • The Mongol rulers had little in common with their Chinese subjects. • Because of their differences, the Mongols kept their separate identity. They lived apart from the Chinese and obeyed different laws. • They kept the Chinese out of high government offices

  34. Trade under Mongol Rule • Foreign trade increased under Kublai Khan • Trade between Europe and Asia had never been more active. Ideas and inventions traveled along with the trade goods. Many Chinese innovations, such as gunpowder, reached Europe during this period. • He also encouraged trade by inviting foreign merchants to visit China. – Marco Polo!

  35. Influences in Russia • Looted and burned Kiev • Mongol rule cut off Russian contacts with Western Europe which were making advances in art and science • Tatars – Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th c.; left Russian church and aristocracy intact • While ferocious in war, the Mongols were quite tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their beliefs on those they conquered

  36. Moscow Takes Lead • With their location near trading rivers, Moscow steadily increased their power • Head of Russian Orthodox church made Moscow capital, became political and spiritual center

  37. Ivan the Great ---- Ivan III • Recovered Russian territories that were lost to invaders • Russia becomes an empire under Ivan III • Tried to limit the power ofboyars (landowning nobles) • Took on the title of Czar (Russian for Caesar) • Russia= “Third Rome”

  38. Last Ten • How did the Mongols influence Russia? • How were the Russian’s Influenced by the Byzantines? • What lead Moscow to grow as a city? • Who was the leader of the Mongols?