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Chapter 7. Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading . Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Mechanical Engineering Department. LECTURE 28. 3-4 Hardness. Hardness

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Chapter 7

Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading

Dr. A. Aziz Bazoune

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

Mechanical Engineering Department

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3-4 Hardness

Hardness

The resistance of a material metal to penetration by a pointed tool is called Hardness. It is the property of a metal, which gives it the ability to resist being permanently, deformed (bent, broken, or have its shape changed), when a load is applied. The greater the hardness of the metal, the greater resistance it has to deformation.

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3-4 Hardness

  • Hardness Measurement Methods
  • Rockwell hardness test
  • Brinell hardness
  • Vickers
  • Knoop hardness
  • Shore
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3-4 Hardness

Rockwell Hardness Test

The Rockwell Hardness test is a hardness measurement based on the net increase in depth of impression as a load is applied. Hardness numbers have no units and are commonly given in the R, L, M, E and K scales. The higher the number in each of the scales means the harder the material.

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Brinell Hardness Test

Brinell hardness is determined by forcing a hard steel or carbide sphere of a specified diameter under a specified load into the surface of a material and measuring the diameter of the indentation left after the test. The Brinell hardness number, or simply the Brinell number, is obtained by dividing the load used, in kilograms, by the actual surface area of the indentation, in square millimeters. The result is a pressure measurement, but the units are rarely stated.

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For steels

The relationship between the minimum ultimate strength and the Brinell harness number for is

Cast Iron

The minimum strength, as defined by the ASTM, is found to be