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High-K Dielectrics The Future of Silicon Transistors. Matthew Yang EECS 277A Professor Nelson. Outline. Introduction Problem with SiO 2 Solution: High-K Dielectric High-K Dielectric Performance Manufacturing Process Summary. Introduction. Continual size reduction of transistors.

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high k dielectrics the future of silicon transistors

High-K DielectricsThe Future of Silicon Transistors

Matthew Yang

EECS 277A

Professor Nelson

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Problem with SiO2
  • Solution: High-K Dielectric
  • High-K Dielectric Performance
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Summary
introduction
Introduction
  • Continual size reduction of transistors.
    • Decrease in channel length.
    • Decrease in gate dielectric thickness.
introduction4
Introduction
  • Currently, gate dielectric approaching thickness of a few atoms.
    • Problem: Quantum Mechanics
    • Electron tunneling  gate current leakage
  • With the number of transistors on a single chip growing exponentially, power dissipation becomes a big problem.
problem with sio 2
Problem with SiO2
  • SiO2 layer is too thin.
    • 90nm node has a dielectric thickness of 1.2nm.
  • Low relative dielectric constant.
  • If there is to be any increase in performance, an alternative must be found.

Image courtesy of Intel.

solution high k dielectric
Solution: High-K Dielectric
  • Options:
    • Increase dielectric thickness.
    • Increase relative dielectric constant.
  • High-k dielectrics are a logical solution.
solution high k dielectric7
Solution: High-K Dielectric
  • Problems with high-k/poly-si:
    • Increased threshold voltage

Image courtesy of Intel.

solution high k dielectric8
Solution: High-K Dielectric
  • Problems with high-k/poly-si:
    • Increased threshold voltage
    • Decreased channel mobility

Image courtesy of Intel.

solution high k dielectric9
Solution: High-K Dielectric
  • Replace poly-si gates with doped, metal gates.
    • Improved mobility.

Image courtesy of Intel.

Image courtesy of Intel.

high k dielectric performance
High-K Dielectric Performance
  • Performance with high-k dielectric and metal gate:

Image courtesy of Intel.

manufacturing process
Manufacturing Process
  • Several types of high-k dielectric: HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2.
  • Chemical vapor deposition:

Image courtesy of Intel.

summary
Summary
  • As transistors shrink in size, an alternative to SiO2 must be found.
  • HfO2, in conjunction with metal gates, improves leakage current, gate capacitance, and speed.
  • By replacing SiO2 with HfO2, transistors will be able to continue to shrink without sacrificing performance.
sources
Sources

Chau, Robert, et. al. "Application of High-K Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes to Enable Silicon and Non-Silicon Logic Nanotechnology." Microelectronic Engineering. Vol.80 (2005): 1-6.

Chau, Robert. "Role of High-k Gate Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes in Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices." 14th Biennial Conference on Insulating Films on Semiconductors 2005. Leuven, Belgium. 22-24 June 2005.

Chau, Robert. "Gate Dielectric Scaling for High-Performance CMOS: from SiO2/PolySi to High-k/Metal-Gate." International Workshop on Gate Insulator 2003. Tokyo, Japan. 6-7 November 2003.

Chau, Robert, et. al. "High-k/Metal-Gate Stack and Its MOSFET Characteristics" _IEEE Electron Device Letters_. 25:6 (June 2004): 408-410.

Intel (4 November 2003). "Intel's High-K/Metal Gate Announcement." Press Release. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.