Chapter 4: Revolution Colonies Fight for Their Rights
1. Proclamation of 1763 2. George Grenville – prime minister and 1st Lord of Treasury Customs Duties – taxes on imports and exports Admiralty Courts – courts outside of colonies used to try defiant colonists 3. Regulatory Acts- Acts imposed by the British to keep the colonies in check Regulatory Acts - Sugar Act “no taxation w/o representation” – James Otis - Currency Act – banned paper $ - Stamp Act – required stamps to be placed on printed material - Quartering Act - Declaratory Act - Townshend Acts - Tea Act Why the Colonies Grow Discontented
Questions to Ponder • 1. Why did the British begin to impose so many taxes on the colonies? • 2. How was the Stamp Act different from other taxes imposed by the British?
How the Colonists Respond • Sons of Liberty – Protest group formed by Isaac Sears aimed at defending American Liberties (Sam Adams) • Declaration of Rights and Grievances – argued that only the colonists’ political representatives had the right to tax colonists – petitioned to the king (Virginia Resolves) • Nonimportation Agreement – Boycott of British Goods
Response continued… • Daughters of Liberty – women protest group who began weaving own cloth • Boston Massacre - March 5, 1770- Group of British soldiers under the command of Thomas Preston open fire on crowd of protesters killing 5 and wounding 6 (Crispus Attucks)
Success of Colonial Protests • Stamp Act repealed in 1766 due to nonimportation agreements 2. Townshend Acts repealed except tax on tea – uphold right to tax colonies – after Boston Massacre
Question to Ponder • Why do you think the British were so willing to pass new taxes in the face of colonial opposition?
The Revolution Begins • British Policies Ignite the flames - Custom ships ordered to patrol North American waters Gaspee Affair – June 1772 Committees of Correspondence – Colonial communication network that helped unify and shape public opinion in the colonies “Revolution was in the minds of the people, the war was just an effect” – John Adams
A Tea Party in the Boston Harbor • December 16, 1773 • Colonists dump 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor • Why? • Lord North • British East India Company • Tea Act 1773
Question to Ponder • How did the British government respond to the Boston Tea Party?
King George III Responds • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) • Closed Boston Harbor • Governor Appointments/Town meeting banned • Governor allowed to transfer trials of British soldiers and officials • New Quartering Act • Quebec Act
Colonists Respond • First Continental Congress • Sept. 5, 1774 • Declaration of Rights and Grievances • Nonimportation Association • May 1775 – second congress
British Loyalist – An American who supported Britain during the Revolution Tories – another name for Loyalists Lobsterbacks – Nickname given to British soldiers because of their red coats Redcoats – Another name for a British soldier Hessians – German mercenaries hired by the British to fight during the Revolution American Colonists Minutemen – colonial militia ready at a “minute’s” notice Patriots – Americans who wanted a complete break from England Continentals – Professional soldiers of the Continental Army (American) Which Side is Which?
The First Shots Are Fired • Lexington and Concord – April 19,1775 - first battle of the Revolutionary War - Famous midnight ride by Paul Revere and William Dawes - General Gage and British engage 70 Minutemen on commons of Lexington “Shot heard round the world” - March to Concord and ambushed by thousands of Minutemen – retreat to Boston
Second Continental Congress • June 15, 1775 – Adopt colonial militia outside of Boston as Continental Army • George Washington – General of Continental Army
Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) • June 16, 1775 – Colonial militia entrenched on Breed’s Hill • Militia withstands two frontal assaults by British forces • 3rd attempt Americans run out of ammunition • Over 1000 British casualties • General Gage replaced by William Howe • British retreat by sea and reinforcements arrive
Question to Ponder • Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill so important to the Americans?
Efforts At Peace • Olive Branch Petition – July 1775 – petition written to King George III declaring loyalty and asking him stop hostilities to negotiate a peace agreement - Americans attack Quebec - King George III calls for Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition
Colonists Call for Independence • Common Sense – January 1776 – pamphlet written by Thomas Paine attacking King George III and calling on colonists to declare their independence
Independence continued…. • Declaration of Independence – July 4, 1776 - drafted by Thomas Jefferson - Influenced by John Locke – Enlightenment philosopher who said humans are born with three natural right: life, liberty, and property (Two Treatises on Government) - Abigail Adams – urged husband John Adams to write into Declaration something on women’s rights
3 Parts of the Declaration of Independence • Says why 13 colonies are breaking from England • Tells what England has done wrong • Says all connections with England have been cut • Fails to mention women and African American rights
Question to Ponder • Why do you think the authors of the Declaration of Independence failed to mention women and African American Rights?
Colonial Advantages Home turf Leadership Cause of fight French Allies Disadvantages Untrained, small army Food & ammunition shortages Weak & divided government (no power to tax) * Robert Morris British Advantages Well trained & supplied army Wealth of resources Strong central government Disadvantages Fight in unfamiliar, hostile land Fighting away from resources Troops indifferent; support in Britain split Advantages and Disadvantages-United States did not have to defeat Britain- it simply had to survive until Britain could not pay for the war
Military - Massive build up in New York a. Intimidate b. Split colonies in half 2. Diplomatic - Promised pardons to all Patriots who put down their arms and swore loyalty to the king England’s Plan- General Howe
Question to ponder • How did the members of the Continental Congress respond to General Howe’s promise of pardoning Patriots who swore loyalty to the king? Why?
Washington Tries to Defend New York • American morale would be doomed if NY fell without a fight 1. Summer 1776 Washington loses Long Island 2. Washington abandons NYC and moves to north end of Manhattan Island 3. British Capture NYC Nathan Hale – “I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” 4. Washington moves to White Plains
Battle of Trenton- December 26, 1776 • Washington crosses the icy Delaware River and captures or kills some 1,000 Hessian forces in town of Trenton 1. Boosts American Morale 2. Saves the Continental Army • Several days later Washington defeats British at Princeton
Question to Ponder • Why is the Battle of Trenton considered to be the turning point in American History?
General Burgoyne’s Three Pronged Attack • Burgoyne’s army march south from Montreal • St. Leger’s army move up St. Lawrence River to Lake Ontario and then head east to NY • Howe’s troops march from NYC and three forces meet near Albany and move east to New England
Plan Fails: Seals the fate of the British * Howe moves troops to Maryland to attack Philadelphia - Capture Continental Congress and Continental Army - Sept. 11, 1777 Howe defeats Washington at Brandywine Creek & captures Philadelphia - Congress and Continentals escape to Valley Forge
Valley Forge • Washington’s winter camp of 1777-78 - loses 2,500 men due to cold and starvation Marquis de Lafayette – France Baron Friedrich von Steuben – Prussia - Help discipline and train Washington troops
The Turning Point- SaratogaOctober 17, 1777 • Burgoyne unaware of Howe’s Plans • Burgoyne stopped in upper NY by General Horatio Gates • General Benedict Arnold defeats British and Iroquois allies in the east 1. Boosted American morale 2. Convinced France to send troops
Two Treaties • February 6, 1778 – France recognizes the United States as an independent nation • June 1778 – France declares war on Britain • 1779 – Spain enters the war on the side of France
Question to Ponder • Why do you think Spain entered the war on the side of France and not on the side of the United States?
The War Elsewhere • In the West - George Rogers Clark – helps Patriots control Ohio River region 2. The War at Sea - John Paul Jones – helps neutralize British Navy “I have not yet begun to fight.” 3. In the South - Britain captures Savannah, GA in 1778 & Charles Town in 1780 - General Cornwallis – Commands British forces in the South - Battle of Kings Mountain – Turning point in the south – southern farmers begin forming militias
The Final Battle: Yorktown-Sept. 28-Oct. 19, 1781 • Spring 1781 Cornwallis invades Virginia to open up supply line to the south • French commander Rochambeau and Washington converge on Yorktown by land • Admiral de Grasse converge on Yorktown by sea surrounding Cornwallis • Cornwallis surrenders on Oct. 19, 1781
Treaty of Paris 1783-Sept. 3, 1783 • Britain acknowledged American Independence • Mississippi River became western boundary • British recognized American fishing rights off the coast of New Foundland • British creditors could collect debts from citizens • Britain gave Florida and Louisiana to Spain • France received colonies in Africa and the Caribbean