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Chapter 4: Revolution Colonies Fight for Their Rights 1 . Proclamation of 1763 2. George Grenville – prime minister and 1 st Lord of Treasury Customs Duties – taxes on imports and exports Admiralty Courts – courts

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Chapter 4 revolution l.jpg

Chapter 4: Revolution

Colonies Fight for Their Rights


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1. Proclamation of 1763

2. George Grenville – prime

minister and 1st Lord of

Treasury

Customs Duties – taxes

on imports and exports

Admiralty Courts – courts

outside of colonies used to

try defiant colonists

3. Regulatory Acts- Acts

imposed by the British to

keep the colonies in check

Regulatory Acts

- Sugar Act “no taxation w/o

representation” – James Otis

- Currency Act – banned paper $

- Stamp Act – required stamps

to be placed on printed

material

- Quartering Act

- Declaratory Act

- Townshend Acts

- Tea Act

Why the Colonies Grow Discontented


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Questions to Ponder

  • 1. Why did the British begin to impose so many taxes on the colonies?

  • 2. How was the Stamp Act different from

    other taxes imposed by the British?


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How the Colonists Respond

  • Sons of Liberty – Protest group formed by Isaac Sears aimed at defending American Liberties (Sam Adams)

  • Declaration of Rights and Grievances – argued that only the colonists’ political representatives had the right to tax colonists – petitioned to the king (Virginia Resolves)

  • Nonimportation Agreement – Boycott of British Goods


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Response continued…

  • Daughters of Liberty – women protest group who began weaving own cloth

  • Boston Massacre

    - March 5, 1770- Group of British soldiers under the command of Thomas Preston open fire on crowd of protesters killing 5 and wounding 6 (Crispus Attucks)


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Success of Colonial Protests

  • Stamp Act repealed in 1766 due to

    nonimportation agreements

    2. Townshend Acts repealed except tax on

    tea – uphold right to tax colonies – after Boston Massacre


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Question to Ponder

  • Why do you think the British were so willing to pass new taxes in the face of colonial opposition?


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The Revolution Begins

  • British Policies Ignite the flames

    - Custom ships ordered to patrol North

    American waters

    Gaspee Affair – June 1772

    Committees of Correspondence – Colonial communication network that helped unify and shape public opinion in the colonies

    “Revolution was in the minds of the people, the war was just an effect” – John Adams


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A Tea Party in the Boston Harbor

  • December 16, 1773

  • Colonists dump 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor

  • Why?

  • Lord North

  • British East India Company

  • Tea Act 1773


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Question to Ponder

  • How did the British government respond to the Boston Tea Party?


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King George III Responds

  • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)

  • Closed Boston Harbor

  • Governor Appointments/Town meeting banned

  • Governor allowed to transfer trials of British soldiers and officials

  • New Quartering Act

  • Quebec Act


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Colonists Respond

  • First Continental Congress

    • Sept. 5, 1774

    • Declaration of Rights and Grievances

    • Nonimportation Association

    • May 1775 – second congress


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British

Loyalist – An American who supported Britain during the Revolution

Tories – another name for Loyalists

Lobsterbacks – Nickname given to British soldiers because of their red coats

Redcoats – Another name for a British soldier

Hessians – German mercenaries hired by the British to fight during the Revolution

American Colonists

Minutemen – colonial

militia ready at a “minute’s”

notice

Patriots – Americans who

wanted a complete break

from England

Continentals –

Professional soldiers of the

Continental Army

(American)

Which Side is Which?


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The First Shots Are Fired

  • Lexington and Concord – April 19,1775

    - first battle of the Revolutionary War

    - Famous midnight ride by Paul Revere

    and William Dawes

    - General Gage and British engage 70

    Minutemen on commons of Lexington

    “Shot heard round the world”

    - March to Concord and ambushed by thousands

    of Minutemen – retreat to Boston


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Second Continental Congress

  • June 15, 1775 – Adopt colonial militia outside of Boston as Continental Army

  • George Washington – General of Continental Army


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Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)

  • June 16, 1775 – Colonial militia entrenched on Breed’s Hill

  • Militia withstands two frontal assaults by British forces

  • 3rd attempt Americans run out of ammunition

  • Over 1000 British casualties

  • General Gage replaced by William Howe

  • British retreat by sea and reinforcements arrive


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Question to Ponder

  • Why was the Battle of Bunker Hill so important to the Americans?


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Efforts At Peace

  • Olive Branch Petition – July 1775 – petition written to King George III declaring loyalty and asking him stop hostilities to negotiate a peace agreement

    - Americans attack Quebec

    - King George III calls for Proclamation for

    Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition


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Colonists Call for Independence

  • Common Sense – January 1776 – pamphlet written by Thomas Paine attacking King George III and calling on colonists to declare their independence


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Independence continued….

  • Declaration of Independence – July 4, 1776

    - drafted by Thomas Jefferson

    - Influenced by John Locke – Enlightenment philosopher who said humans are born with three natural right: life, liberty, and property (Two Treatises on Government)

    - Abigail Adams – urged husband John Adams

    to write into Declaration something on women’s

    rights


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3 Parts of the Declaration of Independence

  • Says why 13 colonies are breaking from England

  • Tells what England has done wrong

  • Says all connections with England have been cut

  • Fails to mention women and African

    American rights


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Question to Ponder

  • Why do you think the authors of the Declaration of Independence failed to mention women and African American Rights?


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Colonial Advantages

Home turf

Leadership

Cause of fight

French Allies

Disadvantages

Untrained, small army

Food & ammunition shortages

Weak & divided government (no power to tax)

* Robert Morris

British Advantages

Well trained & supplied army

Wealth of resources

Strong central government

Disadvantages

Fight in unfamiliar, hostile land

Fighting away from resources

Troops indifferent; support in Britain split

Advantages and Disadvantages-United States did not have to defeat Britain- it simply had to survive until Britain could not pay for the war


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Military

- Massive build up in

New York

a. Intimidate

b. Split colonies in

half

2. Diplomatic

- Promised pardons to

all Patriots who put

down their arms and

swore loyalty to the

king

England’s Plan- General Howe


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Question to ponder

  • How did the members of the Continental Congress respond to General Howe’s promise of pardoning Patriots who swore loyalty to the king? Why?


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Washington Tries to Defend New York

  • American morale would be doomed if NY fell without a fight

    1. Summer 1776 Washington loses Long

    Island

    2. Washington abandons NYC and moves

    to north end of Manhattan Island

    3. British Capture NYC

    Nathan Hale – “I regret that I have but one

    life to lose for my country.”

    4. Washington moves to White Plains


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Battle of Trenton- December 26, 1776

  • Washington crosses the icy Delaware River and captures or kills some 1,000 Hessian forces in town of Trenton

    1. Boosts American Morale

    2. Saves the Continental Army

  • Several days later Washington defeats British at Princeton


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Question to Ponder

  • Why is the Battle of Trenton considered to be the turning point in American History?


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General Burgoyne’s Three Pronged Attack

  • Burgoyne’s army march south from Montreal

  • St. Leger’s army move up St. Lawrence River to Lake Ontario and then head east to NY

  • Howe’s troops march from NYC and three forces meet near Albany and move east to New England


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Plan Fails: Seals the fate of the British

* Howe moves troops to Maryland to attack Philadelphia

- Capture Continental Congress and

Continental Army

- Sept. 11, 1777 Howe defeats

Washington at Brandywine Creek &

captures Philadelphia

- Congress and Continentals escape to Valley

Forge


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Valley Forge

  • Washington’s winter camp of 1777-78

    - loses 2,500 men due to cold and

    starvation

    Marquis de Lafayette – France

    Baron Friedrich von Steuben – Prussia

    - Help discipline and train Washington troops


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The Turning Point- SaratogaOctober 17, 1777

  • Burgoyne unaware of Howe’s Plans

  • Burgoyne stopped in upper NY by General Horatio Gates

  • General Benedict Arnold defeats British and Iroquois allies in the east

    1. Boosted American morale

    2. Convinced France to send troops


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Two Treaties

  • February 6, 1778 – France recognizes the United States as an independent nation

  • June 1778 – France declares war on Britain

  • 1779 – Spain enters the war on the side of France


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Question to Ponder

  • Why do you think Spain entered the war on the side of France and not on the side of the United States?


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The War Elsewhere

  • In the West

    - George Rogers Clark – helps Patriots

    control Ohio River region

    2. The War at Sea

    - John Paul Jones – helps neutralize

    British Navy “I have not yet begun to

    fight.”

    3. In the South

    - Britain captures Savannah, GA in 1778

    & Charles Town in 1780

    - General Cornwallis – Commands British forces in the South

    - Battle of Kings Mountain – Turning point in the south –

    southern farmers begin forming militias


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The Final Battle: Yorktown-Sept. 28-Oct. 19, 1781

  • Spring 1781 Cornwallis invades Virginia to open up supply line to the south

  • French commander Rochambeau and Washington converge on Yorktown by land

  • Admiral de Grasse converge on Yorktown by sea surrounding Cornwallis

  • Cornwallis surrenders on Oct. 19, 1781


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Treaty of Paris 1783-Sept. 3, 1783

  • Britain acknowledged American Independence

  • Mississippi River became western boundary

  • British recognized American fishing rights off the coast of New Foundland

  • British creditors could collect debts from citizens

  • Britain gave Florida and Louisiana to Spain

  • France received colonies in Africa and the Caribbean


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