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WELCOME. A study on Primary and Secondary Education of Bangladesh. Presented by A.N.S. Habibur Rahman Date : March 10, 2014. The objectives of the study . Review Documents Education policy, Teachers' training curricula, Teachers' training materials,

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A study on

Primary and Secondary Education of Bangladesh

Presented by

A.N.S. HabiburRahman

Date : March 10, 2014

the objectives of the study
The objectives of the study
  • Review Documents
    • Education policy,
    • Teachers' training curricula,
    • Teachers' training materials,
    • Teachers' training system and methodology;
  • Identify the relevance of documents to ultimately meet the diverse needs of learners;
  • Identification of teacher’s qualification, skills , gaps and constraints in practicing right based teaching.
  • Assessment
    • Gender equity
    • Human rights
    • Multilingual education
    • Flexibility in the teachers training curriculum
facts figures
Facts & Figures
  • Primary school children (6-10): 17 million
    • Net Enrollment: 91%
    • Dropout rate : 40%
  • Government Primary School (GPS): 37,672
    • Enrollment in GPS: 10 million
    • Teacher :about 185000
  • Registered Non-govt. Primary School (RNGPS): 20083
    • Teacher: 77,000
    • Enrollment: 3.5 million
  • Ebtadayi Madrasa (equivalent to Primary): 6726
    • Enrollment : 0.9million Teacher: 29,000
facts figures contd
Facts & Figures (contd.)
  • Kindergarten School: about 3,000
  • NGO-run non-formal learning centres (7-14): 50,000 (Approx)( Mostly One teacher centres)
  • Enrollment in NGO-run non-formal learning centres: 1.5 million
  • Government Secondary School: 317
    • Enrollment : 2,25,000 (Approx)
    • Teacher: 5,500
  • Non-government Secondary School:18200 (Approx)
    • Enrollment 72,00000 (approx)
    • Teacher:226,009 (Approx)
primary teachers training
Primary Teachers’ Training


  • Teachers’ training for the mainstream primary education
    • Course name- Certificate-in-Education (C-in-Ed).
    • Duration- 1 year
    • Under-graduate certificate by Primary Training Institutes (PTIs).
  • 55 government PTIs working throughout the country
  • A non-government PTI offers training to indigenous teachers
  • An NGO (CRP) runs C-in-Ed course on Special Education in a very small scale
Organizational capacity
    • Two shifts simultaneously.
    • Each PTI is supposed to have 12 instructors
    • A Superintendent responsible for overall team
    • Many of the posts are vacant.
  • (NAPE) National Academy for Primary Education
    • Trains the PTI Instructors, officials
    • Conducts PTI examinations and research
    • No effective control to implement the curriculum.
  • PTIs are not informed about the changes in the national primary curriculum and PTI teaching are not updated accordingly.
  • Lack of coordination among Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), NCTB, PTIs and NAPE.
c in ed course
C-in-Ed Course
  • Theoretical aspects constitute the major part of C-in-Ed Course
  • C-in-Ed is yet to put more importance on ICT.
  • Gender equity is inadequately covered in the curriculum.
  • In practice teaching, too many trainees are engaged in same school which hinders to obtain adequate skills
  • Instructors experienced in one-way communication ,trainees groomed up accordingly
  • Space, contact time and number of learners are not favorable for using teaching aids .
  • No refresher or follow-up after one year course
pti instructors
PTI Instructors
  • Instructors are recruited with a background of B-Ed and M-Ed. Experience in primary education is not prerequisite.
  • A number of instructors are promoted from experimental schools.
  • Severe shortage of instructors to run one shift, though PTIs run two shifts.
  • Sometimes instructors are assigned to visit few schools for monitoring in the attachments area
  • Instructors have very little scope to visit the trainees during the practice training.
  • Coordination among DPE, NCTB, PTI and NAPE should be strengthened
  • Trainees should be allowed to take the textbooks after the training is over.
  • Technical support has to be extended for developing materials and preparing and using teaching learning aids.
  • Practice teaching should be half of the total course period for sustainable achievement .
  • Tanning Monitoring should be introduced
  • C-in-Ed Courses on Special Education should be expanded.
  • One year C-in-Ed Course should be reviewed and updated .
  • Mental growth of children should given more emphasize to ensure joyful creative learning.
  • Materials on music, fine arts and physical education should be available
  • ICT with appropriate facilities should be incorporated within a short time.
  • Best use of of learners’ time requires proper consideration
  • Instructors should receive primary education related induction as a prerequisite of their service.
  • Pre-service training should be introduce under NAPE.
  • Instructors should have firsthand experience on classroom activities before they are supervising practice teaching.
  • Vacant positions instructors in PTIs have to be filled
  • After completion of the course instructors should meet trainees once a year
secondary teachers training
Secondary Teachers’ Training
  • B.Ed is the mainstream training course for the secondary school teachers
    • Course : 1 year- Bachelor of Education (B.Ed)
    • Run by the Teachers’ Training Colleges (TTCs) under the National University.
    • Bangladesh Open University runs B.Ed Course with less contact hours
  • There are 14 govt. TTCs, one for female.
  • The govt TTCs have a good number of teachers, well trained both in home and abroad. They also conduct short-term training
  • The management structure of TTCs is akin to that of the degree colleges.
secondary teachers training12
Secondary Teachers’ Training
  • Private TTCs established in affiliation with the National University, having quality below standard.
  • Private TTCs address the increased need of the huge number of teachers in the country.
  • Private TTCs have less teachers, most of them work on part-time basis and run B.Ed class once in a week
  • A large number of teachers expecting B.Ed training from private TTCs only for payment and scale change
  • Most of the out-campuses of private universities conduct training of very low quality
the course b ed
The Course - B.Ed
  • Present B.Ed curriculum was developed in 1996
    • Designed with 1200 contact hours
    • Gender issues are addressed to some extent
    • Four discussion sessions on inclusive education
  • The issue of human rights is not properly addressed in the curriculum.
  • Questions are different of the private universities and BOU though, curriculum is the same.
  • Most of the private universities do not have teaching practice, for the trainees; instead they adopt simulation .
secondary school teacher
Secondary School Teacher
  • Trainees with 1200 contact hours can use their skills more.
  • Bachelor in Physical Education (B P. Ed) is offered to game teachers. But they are engaged in teaching other subjects.
  • Music, fine arts and crafts subjects are neglected.
  • Most of the secondary schools face shortage of teachers .
  • Inadequate messages on indigenous issues in B-Ed, squeezes ability of teachers to deal with indigenous groups .
  • Low salary and benefits attract teachers to take additional work
  • In many cases, subject-teachers are not recruited ..
  • Presently non govt teachers are recruited by Non-govt. Teacher Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA)
  • For one shift, all TTCs should strictly follow the B.Ed curriculum and 1200 contact hours .
  • Public and Private TTCs should be of similar standard.
  • Strong regulatory framework is needed for Out-campus of private universities.
  • A supportive follow-up of B-Ed Course should be introduced.
  • TTCs should review the B.Ed curriculum .
recommendations b ed
Recommendations –B.Ed
  • Right-Based Approach should be the focus of B.Ed Course .
  • Teaching Quality Improvement of Secondary Education Project can be mainstreamed for sustainability of achievement.
  • 'Human Rights‘ should be included in Teachers’ training course
  • Universal Human Declaration be available to the instructors and teachers.
  • Sports, music, fine arts , crafts should get proper emphasis
  • Student teacher ratio should be reduced for enabling trained teachers to use skills in converting classroom into learner-centred.
  • Ethnicity, disability and gender issue should be addressed with due importance
  • Allocation is needed for teaching learning aids .
  • Subject-based teachers should be recruited.
other trainings for secondary teachers
Other trainings forSecondary Teachers
  • Many teachers participate in some round year trainings offered by different projects, which get lost after phase out
  • The short term trainings include
    • Teaching Quality Improvement (TQI) for 14 days,
    • Continuous Professional Development for 20 days,
    • Subject-based training for 6 days, and
    • Workshops on different issues.
  • These include inadequate gender, inclusive education and other important topics.
  • The present short-term trainings use participatory method and thereby interactive to some extant.
  • TOT is not adequate for Master trainers to disseminate content in large scale training .
  • Short-term teachers’ trainings should be reviewed to supplement B-ED training.
  • Weeklong refresher training should be introduced to develop skills of teachers with modern concepts of teaching learning.
  • For professional development of teachers visit to schools by trainers at a reasonable intervals.
  • To acquire knowledge on social development issues and pedagogy study need to be commissioned.
other findings inclusive education
Other FindingsInclusive Education
  • PTI training focuses mainly on meeting the needs of normal students, not the disable children.
  • The concept of inclusiveness is a workshop topic to orient the instructors of PTIs
  • Bangladesh Health and Physiotherapy Institute initiated an equivalent C-in-Ed Course with focus on special education on a small scale .
  • No follow up and support provided to the teachers for solutions to the problem of teaching learning process
recommendations inclusive
Recommendations- Inclusive
  • School management committee and other stakeholders including teachers and parents should work to create scope and support inclusive education at school level.
  • Comprehensive approach should be undertaken from policy to practice to make the mainstream primary education inclusive.
  • 'Inclusive Education' topic should be included in curriculum
  • Special Education materials should be free of cost or at a low price.
Special education institution should work as resource centres for inclusive education.
  • Negative concepts, text and images in curriculum regarding disabilities ,be replaced by positive messages and information.
  • Subject related to special needs should be included in the curriculum of PTI & TTC.
  • Gender parity has been achieved in primary and secondary education, but but teacher training lack gender aspects.
  • Gender equity is not adequately mentioned in training course, materials and methodologies.
  • Materials produced by some NGOs highlighted gender and equity issues.
  • The number of female teachers increased, but attitude of male teachers is not congenial.
recommendations gender
Recommendations- Gender
  • Gender equity should be taken into account during the policy and course development.
  • Topic on 'gender equity' should be included in the Teachers' Training curriculum.
  • All gender biased or insensitive concepts, text and images prevailing in the education
  • curriculum of schools should be replaced with gender sensitive messages and information.
  • Materials produced by some NGOS should be adapted.
multilingual education
Multilingual Education
  • There is no official arrangement to use ethnic minorities’ mother tongues as instruction of education
  • Education materials are not available in the languages of the minority groups other than in Bangla.
  • Number of teachers coming from minority groups in the mainstream employment process is too small .
  • Some NGOs working in ethnic minority areas introduced multilingual education.
recommendations multilingual
Recommendations- Multilingual
  • More number of teachers from minority language should be trained and posted.
  • In case of unavailability , recruitment should carefully be made from the sensitive citizens.
  • Materials should be developed in minority languages to help teachers and learners
  • Information on culture and livelihood of the minority groups should be in the curriculum and textbooks.