World War I. The war to end all wars. By The Numbers. Mobilized Dead Wounded Missing/PoW Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800
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The war to end all wars
Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000
Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800
Great Britain 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652
France 8,410,000 1,375,800 3,266,000 537,000
Austria-Hungary 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000
Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000
US 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,526
Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000
Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 152,390 27,029
Japan 800,000 300 907 3
Romania 750,000 335,706 120,000 80,000
Serbia 707,343 45,000 133,148 152,958
Belgium 267,000 13,716 44,686 34,659
Greece 230,000 5,000 21,000 1,000
Portugal 100,000 7,222 13,751 12,318
Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000
Chlorine- a greenish, yellow heavier than air gas which in its pure form is an oxidizing agent. This means that it will react in the presence of water to cause a chemical burning effect on organic matter. Mucus tissues of the human body are susceptible to such chemical reaction because of 1) their organic nature and , 2) they are always covered with a film of water. Symptoms of chlorine gas poisoning include vomiting, difficulty in breathing, a burning sensation in the lungs, eyes, nasal and mouth passages, watery eyes. In severe cases, cell damage in the lungs leads to fluid buildup in the lungs, loss of consciousness through suffocation, and death.
Phosgene - a colourless, odorless, heavier than air gas formed by heating carbon tetrachloride. It is highly poisonous in that it will preferentially replace oxygen in the cells and quickly causes an oxygen debt within the body, unconsciousness and death.
Mustard gas- a caustic gas with a distinctive mustard smell, it causes blistering and huge sores on any exposed tissue, internal or external. Probably the most used gas, with phosgene, in the war. A nasty piece of business.
Taken from the British reference manual on Trench Warfare, British Trench Warfare 1917-1918. The manual was originally prepared by the General Staff at the British War Office
German remains at Verdun
Russian soldier dead on the wire
'Who are they? What are they?' asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo, who was now behind him.
'I don't know,' said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. 'But I have seen them too. In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair and weeds in their silver hair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.' Frodo hid his eyes in his hands. 'I know not who they are…'
"Yes, yes,' said Gollum. 'All dead, all rotten…There was a great battle long ago....‘
- J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings