the increasing costs of development threats to china s biodiversity l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Increasing Costs of Development - Threats to China’s Biodiversity - PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Increasing Costs of Development - Threats to China’s Biodiversity -

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 19

The Increasing Costs of Development - Threats to China’s Biodiversity - - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 308 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Increasing Costs of Development - Threats to China’s Biodiversity - Benjamin Anderson Kaitlin Dodds Amanda Ribeiro Environ 111 GSI: Menan Jangu Systems Thinking: Increasing Costs of Development Let’s Investigate… Biodiversity Deforestation Population Growth Urbanization Energy

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Increasing Costs of Development - Threats to China’s Biodiversity -' - Renfred


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the increasing costs of development threats to china s biodiversity

The Increasing Costs of Development-Threats to China’s Biodiversity-

Benjamin Anderson

Kaitlin Dodds

Amanda Ribeiro

Environ 111

GSI: Menan Jangu

slide2

Systems Thinking: Increasing Costs of Development

Let’s Investigate…

Biodiversity

Deforestation

Population Growth

Urbanization

Energy

Consumption

slide3

Population Transformation

China's Total Population by Sex and Age, Census 1990

  • 1949: The end of a revolution…
  • Increased health standards…
  • Population Hiccups…

Source: “Data Population Growth.” IIASA. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/data/pop/p_23c_m.htm

slide4

The Great Leap Forward...

  • Pre-1958: China’s economy is based on agricultural production
  • Great Leap Forward
    • Goal: Surpass Britain’s industrial output by 1972
    • Method: Focus on steel production and coal and energy output
slide5

...'Great Leap Backward'

Effects of the Great Leap Forward (Crude Birth and Death Rate, 1949-1996)

  • Industrial yields increased…
  • China’s agricultural production decreased…
  • Massive demographic shock…

Source: “Data Population Growth.” IIASA. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/data/pop/pop_10.htm

slide6

Biodiversity

Deforestation

Population Growth

Energy

Consumption

Urbanization

slide7

Urbanization

  • Why the Change?
    • The Great Leap Forward?
    • Cultural Revolution?
    • Deng Xiaoping?
  • Rapid Urbanization: 1990-2000

Source: ArcGIS data

slide8

Costs of Urbanization

Expansion of the Urban Sector in China

  • Urbanization: It’s Contagious
  • Robert Blair: “Birds and Butterflies Along an Urban Gradient

Source: Pannell, Clifton and Jeffrey S. Torguson. “Interpreting Spatial Patterns from the 1990 China Census”. Geographical Review. Vol. 81, No. 3. (July 1991), p. 309

slide9

Biodiversity

Deforestation

Population Growth

Energy

Consumption

Urbanization

slide10

Energy Consumption

  • “The increase in per capita energy use prior to the last two decades of the 20th century is related to the evolving nature of societies as they move from primitive, to agricultural, to industrial, and then to technological.” James Galloway (1998: 18)

Pictures: Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art

slide11

Energy Consumption

  • China: Before Mao to Now
  • Powering the nation… with COAL!!!
slide12

The Costs of Energy

  • China contributes the second largest amount of carbon emissions.
  • Emissions are still growing!!!
slide13

Biodiversity

Deforestation

Population Growth

Energy

Consumption

Urbanization

slide14

Effects of Deforestation

…on China’s Biodiversity

  • China is one of the world’s major centers of biodiversity *
    • Forests have a rich array of species
    • China possesses ~2,800 tree species *
  • China’s forests and biodiversity have long been under threat due to logging and hunting, as well as the “conversion of habitats to form fields and human settlements.” *
  • At least eight large mammal species are thought to have been exterminated since imperial times*

* Harkness, James. Recent Trends in Forestry and Conservation of Biodiversity in China.

The China Quarterly, No. 156, Special Issue: China’s Environment. (Dec., 1998), pp. 911-934.

slide15

Deforestation vs. Biodiversity

  • High rate of deforestation (~1.2% per year)**
  • Problems with Protected Areas:
    • Remoteness and poverty of regions
    • Poorly paid and trained staff
    • Gaps in protected area system
  • Poor regeneration
    • “estimated that due to inappropriate logging practices, one-third of all forests cut before 1979 were replaced by degraded mountain slopes” *
    • Replanting “green deserts”
      • Lack of biological diversity *

*Harkness, James. Recent Trends in Forestry and Conservation of Biodiversity in China.The China Quarterly, No. 156,

Special Issue: China’s Environment. (Dec., 1998), pp. 911-934. <http://www.jstor.org/view/03057410/ap020147/02a00100/0>.

**Li, Jing-Neng. “Comment: Population Effects on Deforestation and Soil Erosion in China.” Population and Development Review,

Vol. 16, Supplement: Resources, Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Opinions. (1990), pp. 254-258.

<http://www.jstor.org/view/00987921/dm993995/99p0118j/0>.

slide16

Biodiversity

Deforestation

Population Growth

Energy

Consumption

Urbanization

slide17

Recap...

  • In China, we have seen that…
    • Population keeps growing
    • Urbanization keeps growing
    • Carbon emissions keep increasing
    • China is committed to addressing failures, such as its commitment to replanting forests.
slide18

The Next Step...

  • Threats to Biodiversity
    • Population Growth…
    • Affluence…
      • China has experienced rapid growth in its economic sector in conjunction with rapid growth in energy consumption
      • During the economic slowdown in the late 1990s… China saw energy and CO2 emissions decline.
    • Counteract Affluence…
      • Garbaccio et al.
        • Possible to control carbon emissions through taxation.
references
References
  • “An Energy Summary of China.” Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum. 7 April 2007. <http://www.cslforum.org/china.htm>.
  • Blair, Robert B.  “Birds and Butterflies along an Urban Gradient:  Surrogate Taxa for Assessing Biodiversity.”  Ecological Applications.  Vol. 9.  Iss. 1.  (Feb, 1999), pp. 164-170.
  • “China: Environmental Issues.” Energy Information Administration. 7 April 2007. <http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/chinaenv.html>.
  • “Data Population Growth.” IIASA. 7 April 2007 <http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/iiasa_1.htm>.
  • Galloway, James N. “The Global Nitrogen Cycle: Changes and Consequences.” Environmental Pollution. 102, S1(1998), pp. 15-24.
  • Garbaccio et al. “Controlling Carbon Emissions in China.” Environment and Development Economics 4 (1999): 493–518
  • Harkness, James. Recent Trends in Forestry and Conservation of Biodiversity in China.
  • The China Quarterly, No. 156, Special Issue: China’s Environment. (Dec., 1998),
  • pp. 911-934.
  • Joseph, William A.  “A Tragedy of Good Intentions: Post-Mao Views of the Great Leap Forward.”  Modern China.  Vol. 12.  Iss. 4.  (Oct., 1986), pp. 419-457.
  • Li, Jing-Neng. “Comment: Population Effects on Deforestation and Soil Erosion in
  • China.” Population and Development Review, Vol. 16, Supplement: Resources,
  • Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Opinions. (1990),
  • pp. 254-258.
  • Ma, Laurence J. C. “Urban Transformation in China, 1949-2000: A Review and Research Agenda.” Environment and Planning. Vol. 34. (9 Jan 2002), pp. 1545-1569.
  • McKinney, Michael L. “Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Conservation.” Bio Science. Vol. 52, Iss. 10.